Structure of the Commentary

Title of the Section with Verses

Overall observations of the section.

Who is speaking.


Title of the subsection

Verses with speaker

Exposition of the verse. Definitions.


The idea.  An idea is an underlying principle or truth.

Other ways of saying the same thing.

How this verse relates to Song 8:6-7

Other feelings.

How this verse relates to other verses in the Song.

How this verse relates to other verses in the Bible.

How this verse relates to Phil. 4:4, 2 Tim. 3:16 and Psalm 19:7.  And encourage the disheartened and strengthen the weak.

The praise of their love more than wine.

Application in courtship or marriage.  Wisdom.

Application as it relates to getting closer Jesus Christ

Outline of the whole Song

  1.  Love Aroused 1:2-2:7
    1. Reasons her affections for him were aroused, awakened and sparked for him.
      1. His better love
      2. His sweet name
      3. He was the most desirable man
        1. Majestic yet humble
        2. His righteous and valuable leadership
        3. His loving eyes
        4. His strong hands and legs
        5. His choice appearance
        6. His sweet words
        7. Nothing in or about him was undesirable
    2. His love aroused or drawn out by her.  Reasons why he falls in love with her.
      1. Her inner beauty or holiness which consisted in love.  She was beautiful on the inside.
      2. What did her inner beauty consist of that caught his attention and attracted him to her? Attracted by her moral beauty.
      3. Her outer beauty
    3. The new sister’s love to her friends and companions “The Daughters of Jerusalem”.
      1. Expressed in wanting to be accepted by them based on her testimony of herself.
  2. Love Covenanted
    1. The Sweetest Proposal
    2. Engagement
    3. Learning to hold him tighter
    4. Wedding
    5. Wedding night
  3. Love laboring
  4. Fruits of love
    1. She fully leans on her beloved
    2. Sealed hearts
    3. A complete experiential knowledge of love
    4. Wisdom and an ability to counsel on matters of love
    5. The husband is at peace and content
    6. Fruitful land
    7. Love exulted and glorified
    8. Love never ending

Love Concluded

Chapter 1

The Title

Solomon’s Song of Song’s” 1:1.

Here we have the title that tells us 4 things. 1  The author.  2  What it is?  3  It’s superlative in nature and reasons why.  4  Why translate it Song of Solomon?

1 The author, Solomon.  The inscription “Solomon’s Song of Songs” can be understood “The Song of songs, which is by, or to, or of, or about Solomon.   So some translations have the title saying “The song of Songs, which is Solomon’s.”  Clearly Solomon’s name shows up 7x in the Song.  Solomon and the Holy Spirit are its author/Author.  Solomon was gifted with unmeasurable wisdom 1 Kings 4:23, and quite frankly the love Song is such a masterful work of art that I highly doubt anyone but Solomon could have wrote it.

The author is not a woman. Is the author a woman?  No, the author is not Solomon’s first wife, though I strongly believe she let Solomon know her thoughts and feelings so he could write it from her perspective.  Some have speculated that a woman wrote it because much of the poem is written in the first person, from the perspective of a woman.  See “Key characteristics” in the intro for more information on the Song being written from a woman’s perspective.

2  What is Solomon’s Song of Songs?   It is a song, poetry, scripture and Divinely inspired.

A  Its a song.  Something that was sung.  Song in the Bible honor God.  Song were written for the ultimate purpose of Glorifying God and our enjoyment of Him.  Songs in the Bible are characterized by the fact that they honor and glorify God.  Songs were sung.  Faithful Jews today read it right before dinner every Friday night.  It’s God’s praise to Himself so to speak.  Could have been added to the Psalms as it is a Song.

Psalm 45 is a “Love Song”.  And virgins used to sing wedding songs.  So during Solomon’s time their would have been virgins singing Solomon’s Song of Songs sometime after he wrote it.  Since there is a male voice and a chorus I believe a group of people could easily sing the song.  But that doesn’t mean that a woman or jus a man could sing it as well.

Its “a” song, not a compellation of songs.  It’s not 8 different poems but is one poem.  Songs of Songs doesn’t mean multiple songs but the title clearly says that it is a “Song”.   Some readers have had a hard time seeing how the Song connects so they think its a compellation of poems rather than one complete Song.

B It is poetry.  Love Poetry.  Illustrating the Love of God in the union and communion of a ish and isha.  An emotional impact is more important than a historical narrative.   To raise the affection of the hearer to the greatest as long as the degree of affection is consistent with truth.

It relies on the emotional impact to convey the idea.  Love and how it feels is different depending on the context.

One affection is desire.  Desire is wanting what is not present.  A taste of his love increased her desire.  She now desired him.  She now desired multiple displays of affection from him.  And the reason she desires him and his love is because she has tasted it by the thought of his past love, current love and love in the future and on forever.

C  It’s Scripture!  It’s a poetic love Song in the Bible.  Therefore it is “profitable for teaching, correcting, rebuking and training…”  It is a Song in the Bible, therefore it is profitable for teaching, correcting, rebuking and training in righteousness.  To get a right idea of love.  To teach what “love is” 8:6, which includes how it feels (which is subjective and subject to change) knowing its superlative characteristics which don’t change and are object truths about love.  So that it is profitable to teach about love, correct those who know and are trying to love but failing to some degree or duration.  The song is also profitable to rebuke those who know better but are willfully doing the opposite.  Lastly the Love Song is profitable to train those who are loving to continue their righteous dating, courtship and marriage.

3  Its superlative in nature.  Meaning better than the other’s.  It stands above the other’s.   Its a song above all other’s.  Song of Songs. A Hebraism for the superlative degree.  The title lets us know there is a comparison between this Song and other’s that Solomon wrote.  This God breathed love poem stands above all the other 1,004 songs Solomon wrote. The language is the same as “holy of holies” and “servant of servants” Gen. 9:25. Solomon wrote 1,005 Songs, “He also spoke 3,000 proverbs, and his songs were 1,005.” and Moses wrote some songs and David wrote many as well.  But this Song, is superlative in nature as compared with all the other Songs Solomon wrote. Solomon’s Song isn’t a better Song compared to the Songs of David or Moses, but better than the ones he wrote himself. The love song that was written by the wisest husband who ever lived is called Solomon’s Song of Songs. 1 Kings 4:32.

What qualifies this Love Poem to be better than the rest?   What makes it a superlative Song?

A  Its ability to communicate to us a right idea of love.  B.  It honored God better than the rest.  C. It gives the most comprehensive definition.  D  The author and bride know by experience what love is.  E  The feeling in the heart is felt the best.  F  We see the closest bond being formed.  G  Superlatives are used so we get the highest view or idea of love.  H  It’s better than all the rest because it is Divinely Inspired by the Holy Spirit.

A  It best communicated the idea of love.  Known in its effects and illustrated in the words and action of the lovers.  What is the effect of the Song.  It’s matchless in it’s ability to help us understand what love is. The greatest love song he ever wrote. Its a love Song that communicates to our whole heart what love is. It’s like Solomon after he was gifted with unmeasurable wisdom wanted to help god’s people in his/His kingdom on earth know what love is.  He writes 1005 songs and compares them all and this one stands above them all. The relative clause refers to “the whole idea of the song of songs.”  K And D. The whole idea of the poem is to know and sense what love is Song 8:6-7.

B  It’s ability to honor God.  No other song that honored God did it better than this one.  Solomon who was gifted with unmeasurable wisdom had it in his mind to glorify God, and honor God by writing the best Love Song possible.  Line em all up and this one honored God more than the other’s that Solomon wrote.  This one is the masterpiece and all the other’s paled in comparison..

C  The completeness of the description best describes love.  No major characteristic about it is missing.  Love  and painful Jealousy.  A perfect balance of truth so as to properly move the heart and enflame it.   Death and painful jealousy are mentioned so there is a proper humbling of the heart.  Both authors knew by experience what love is in it’s essence and nature.  Solomon knew best what it felt like because he experience it with his bride then wrote about it.  The Song is what really went on in the experience of God’s love to her through a great type of Jesus Christ.  Surely God would know how to both describe love and illustrate it the best.  God the Holy Spirit, who is Love, unmistakably knows what love is.

A clear and comprehensive idea of love is defined in Song 8:6-7.  Love is strong and this poem puts the strength of love on display better than the other’s. Love’s Jealousy is cruel like hell fire and this poem expresses that cruel feeling in the heart of the bride the best. Love sparks and the varying degree’s and manner of expressions are most comprehensive in this poem. The fact that love is a flame above all other’s is best illustrated in this poem than any of the other’s he wrote. Love is unquenchable and again the various and greatest enemies and foxes that could destroy the union are overcome. Love is priceless so also a free and unconditional love is illustrated in this poem more than any of the other’s. So all of this gives us the idea that the love poem Solomon wrote that is in the Bible is worthy of the title it has, “Solomon’s Song of Songs“.

D  It has the most experienced author and bride.  The author and bride know by experience what love is.  Solomon came about this knowledge of love by experience.  So God first let Solomon know what it was by experience and then he wrote the greatest love poem that honored God.

E  It communicates to the heart what love feels like better than the rest.  We don’t get a right idea of love just by knowing it intellectually in the mind but by also feeling it.  This Song helps us to feel what it was like for the bride to fall in love with a type of Jesus Christ.  The feeling and sense of what love feels like in the heart is communicated to us better than any of the other love poems Solomon wrote.  The heart that has true love in it can know what true love feels like for “love is the souls relish of the supreme excellency inclining the heart to choose God as its chief good.” JE  Due to the structure of the Love Song the soul can get the best sense of what love is.  Of all the love songs Solomon wrote this one illustrates and communicates love to the whole heart the best.  Of course with the help of the Spirit of God. We not only get a right idea in the mind but also a right sense of it in our hearts.  For love is more delightful than wine.

It’s as if Solomon asked himself as he wrote “How can I affect their hearts to the highest, deepest, greatest width and length?  How can I lay out a love poem that will have the greatest affect on the hearts of the readers?  This Song did it better than any of the other love Songs Solomon wrote.  So not only does the Love Song give you a sense of what love tastes like but it does it better than any of of the other Songs Solomon wrote.  Understanding the context of each feeling and finding words to express those holy emotions.

A song moves the emotions better than just words.  “And the duty of singing praises to God, seems to be appointed wholly to excite and express religious affections. No other reason can be assigned, why we should express ourselves to God in verse, rather than in prose, and do it with music, but only, that such is our nature and frame, that these things have a tendency to move our affections.” JE RA 44.  So this is to be sung in order to “move our affections.”

Note.  Even though a superlative love is described in 8:6-7 that doesn’t mean that that superlative love was properly illustrated through out the poem.  Even though it is properly illustrated.  Song 8:6.  Love is a “Flame of Jah”.  Meaning love is a flame of God or love is a flame above all other flames.  Which makes this a poem that illustrates how love which is a flame above all other’s works itself out in a marriage between a loving Christ and a born again Gentile.  Their love was superlative in nature in many way’s. Their loves Jealousy is the greatest.  Their love is unquenchable.  Their love is priceless.  Their love was better than wine  Song 1:2, 4:9-10.

F  A superlative bond is formed.  A superlative fruit of their love is seen.  The fruit of their superlative love is a superlative result.  Normal marriages don’t have a love that overcomes Satan, the world and the sinful flesh.  Normal marriages between non believers never had love in the first place.  They never had it to lose.  Non believers can’t have a selfless motive in their heart.  The minds of the two are the same and so are their wills.  Their wills are selfless for love is free and priceless.  A non believers will is only selfish and “evil continually” Gen. 6:5.  The Song best illustrates the closest bond ever in the words of the bride when she says “set me as a seal upon your heart.”  Can you think of any expression that would illustrate a closer bond?  That of a two hearts being sealed.  We see the closest bond being formed form beginning to end to help us understand the unquenchable power of love.  In a way that we both know and feeling it.

G  Other superlatives in the Song.  She has the most beauty of all women, and her character is compared to the best mare, the mare of “Pharaoh” 1:9.  He has the most wisdom of all men 1 Kings 4:32.  There is an utter despising, “utterly” in Song 8:7.  He is described as a “Beloved above all other’s” 5:9, “chief among ten thousand” 5:10 and the most desirable king Song 1:2-4 for “all” the young women adored him.  The best Love Song Solomon wrote should have superlatives in it like this one does so that our mind thinks of a love above all other’s.  We should have a high view of true love and if I said that her husband loved her what idea of love would you get.  But if I said to line of 10,000 husbands and tell you that he loved her more than all the rest then what kind of idea of his love would you get?  True love can help a man love better than 10,000 others.

H  It’s better than all the rest because of it being infallibly inspired. It is possible that Solomon was inspired when he wrote the other 1004 Songs but we know for sure this one is inspired therefore it is infallible.  Which means the Song is completely trustworthy as a source to learn what true love is and how it operates in courtship and marriage.

The contents of the Song qualify it to be worthy of its title.  For more on Solomon’s Song of Songs as a superlative title, I give 10 reasons just click here.

Solomon was wise.  The Song is in the wisdom literature because it helps us be wise.  We have wisdom or the ability to love and obey when we know what love is not only in the head only but felt in the heart.  In the head by object truth and in the heart by a subjected feeling based on truth.  Solomon knew wisdom by experiencing it and applying it in his first marriage.  This gave him the ability to write the best song of the 3005 that he wrote.

4  Question answered about the title.  Why do some translators prefer calling it the Song of Solomon?  1  To avoid the allegorical view that believes the title Song of Songs means that it is a divine love Song between God and Israel or Jesus Christ and the Church.  Meaning that if it was a love song between a man and a woman then how could it be a love song above all other’s.   But if this is a love Song above all other love songs Solomon wrote then its perfectly okay to be a love Song between human lovers.  Yet these lovers have a divine love in them.

Especially during the time of the puritans, the dominant thought was that the title Song of Songs could only be superlative unless the beloved was a Divine Being.  Yet if you take a literal historical view the beloved in the Song is Solomon, a human and not Divine.  Nor is the beloved Jesus Christ, but the beloved is a type of Jesus Christ.

Application. Praise God for giving Solomon unmeasurable wisdom to craft such a beautiful Song above all other’s that he wrote. Thank God for preserving the best for us! Its because of His Everlasting love to us that He gives us such a wise shepherd. Study and meditate on it so that you can glorify God in your life by getting a right idea of love.

Transition from Song 1:1 to 1:2.   Knowing the historical context which includes the fact that David is still alive and Solomon is co-regent.  She is a born again Gentile.  Solomon is the 3rd Messiah of Israel.  Solomon is a type of Jesus Christ.  All are important to a right understanding of the Poem.  So if you haven’t already read the historical Context then its best to do so more sooner than later.

First section 1:2-2:6  “Love roused”

Title of the first main section. I titled this section “love aroused” after many ups and downs love bound them so close that their hearts were one and she was sealed to his arm.  They are coming up out of the desert and she is leaning on him and is delightfully reminded about how it all began and she says “I roused you under the apple tree.” 8:5.  At a time for love she roused the shepherd kings holy affections for her.   Her desire was for him due to his sweet and holy name and love that was better than wine.  So a fire that would never end began in her heart for him at his first anointing.  Struck by both her matchless internal and external beauty he invites her into his fellowship and they have the sweetest communion.  Her love to Him is roused and his love to her is roused, therefore the title Love roused.

Overall observation of this section

Song 1:2-2:7 answers the question “How did it all begin or where did your love for each other start?”  How and when were their affections for each other awakened?  This is the section where her feelings are awakened and roused for him and his feelings are awakened and roused towards her.  They meet at his first anointing, he takes her to his chambers, she gets accepted by the daughters of Jerusalem, they have a mutual delight in each other’s moral excellencies and their first date ends with her being overwhelmed by his love and passes out in his arms at the banquet hall where there is a banner over her that says “love”.

This is where she begins to drink up his love and ends at the point where she can’t physically stand and faints in his arms at the banquet hall.

She goes  from being an enemy of the king to being his friend and companion.  From an unsatisfied life to the satisfied in God’s kingdom, being wooed and courted by God’s beloved son, Jedidiah, Solomon the coming king of peace. (I say coming because David is still alive and young Solomon is going to be king when David dies.  So Solomon is co-regent.

From slavery to freedom in the promised land through her union by faith and love to Israel’s coming Messiah.

See the intro for a larger context leading up to Solomon’s first anointing in Song 1:2-4

There is about to be a whole new world order and Solomon is going to lead it.  God would come dwell on earth in a temple and there would be peace on earth and good will to both Jew and Gentiles during his reign.

This is where she has true love for him.  It may not be her first love or feelings she had for him, but it sure looks like it.  Either way she has “him” on her mind and will have him sealed there by the end of the Song due to the superlative characteristics of love and God’s Name, jealousy, being in her.

In this section there is information inserted that was told to Solomon after they were married called “old” feelings of love she had when they met, Song 7:13.  Meaning that later on after being married she thinks back to what she was thinking and feeling when she first saw, thought and smelled him.  She wanted him to kiss her multiple times and quickly take her away with him.  The first audible words spoken are when at his anointing she gets close enough to smell him and says “Pleasing is the fragrance of your anointing oils, your name is like ointments poured out.” 1:3

1:2-4   Love at first anointing.

1:1 is the title. 1:2 is in her heart as she thinks about her new coming Messiah and his love. These thoughts and feelings are shared with Solomon after their marriage. Song 1:3-4a The slave girl speaks to the young co-regent king and soon to be the 3rd Messiah of Israel. 1:4b Is context as to what the king did after she expressed her love, particularly her love of complacency in him due to his holy name. So without haste he took her to his chambers. There people are praising and delighting in their soon to be king so that 1:4c,d are those that have a true love to their coming king. I would say Israelites. But I would rather be more accurate and describe them as to who they are by what they are doing. Then the slave girl says to their coming Messiah just after he was honored and adored says, “How the upright adore you.” 1:4e Then the Gentile sunburnt slave turns to the women that grew up in Jerusalem and says, “Do not stare at me because I am darkened by the sun…

In this section we see her desiring him and his response.  We see in her expressions of love to him a reflection of the image of God.  God is love.  Understand the audible expression of the love she feels in her heart for him and see the glory of God on display.


Loves first spark.  Her first drink (that lead to her fainting 2:6)

With a flame above all other flames in her heart the born again slave girl thinks in her heart.

Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips, for you love is better than wine.”

The newly anointed young virgin king, Solomon is close enough for her to smell his anointing oils.  As she thinks of who he is, what he is like and the prophecies about him she says to him,

Pleasing is the fragrance of your ointments, you name is like ointment poured forth.”

Thinking of how desirable and seeing the feelings the other maidens have for the single holy king

  No wonder the maidens love you.”

Seeing their affection for him and knowing her ardent affections for him she wants to be heart to heart and near to him as soon as possible so she says to him,

Draw me after you.  Let us hurry.

Then we are told what the king did in response to her request.

The king has brought me into his chambers

(Left off here)

Overall observations of the section.

This is loves first spark 8:6.

In light of 7:12-13

Let us rise early and go to the vineyards;
Let us see whether the vine has budded
And its blossoms have opened,
And whether the pomegranates have bloomed.
There I will give you my love.
13 “The mandrakes have given forth fragrance;
And over our doors are all choice fruits,
Both new and old,
Which I have saved up for you, my beloved.”

So she wants to go to a lovely place and give her love both old and new to him.  I take this as her telling him both old emotional feelings she had for him like Song 1:2, 1:13 and 1:14.  These verses I believe weren’t said out loud at the times she felt loved.

So I take this to be her “first love” that she shared with him sometime after the wedding.  While they were in a fragrant garden she desires to tell him about the day she fell in love with him and he took her to his chambers.

She might have said something like this that night, “Remember when your father David was dying and you were anointed the first time.”  His doves eyes lock onto hers as he is about to drink up her loves to him.  Her beloved answers,  “Yes I remember when I was anointed and we met.”

She continues with a deep desire to please Him in her heart as she shares her “first love” with him,

“I was there at Gihon thinking about who you were and what you were like and the feeling was absolutely more delightful than wine.  I believed all the prophecies about you and immediately fell in love with you as my king and Messiah but I wanted more.”   “There was a flame above all other flames burning in my heart for you.  I wanted you to kiss me on the lips over and over again because your love was more delightful than wine.”  So Solomon then wrote the first verse of the Song of Songs based on her letting him know what was in her heart when she fell in love.  What she delightfully felt in her heart could be expressed in words so it is written,

Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips for your love is better than wine.”  1:2

“Then remember when you got close enough for me to smell you.”   “Yes, I do.”  Solomon said.

Just the memory of when she first fell in love started to make her feel the same thing all over again.  She continued,  “I could smell your anointing oils and had the most pleasant thoughts contemplating your holy name.  The feelings I got when thinking about you as my holy king and loving Messiah were similar to that of smelling your ointments.”  “Both were very pleasing to me.”  “All the people were rejoicing saying ‘Long live king Solomon’ (1 Kings 1:34)  Each time they mentioned your name my feelings would rise up and a peace that surpassed my understanding filled my heart.  I can’t even put words to the kind of joy I had it was unspeakable and full of glory!  I looked at you and you looked at me and we both knew our feelings for each other were rising because we both had doves eyes.”

She pauses as he says with a big smile on his face,  “Yes, and you were the most beautiful woman I had ever seen.”  “Remember what I said to you”  she said.  Smiling even bigger he said,  “You said, ‘Pleasing is the fragrance of your anointing oils, your name is like ointment poured forth.  No wonder the maidens love you.”

“The fire in my heart for you as I said those things about your sweet name kept increasing and my desire for you to draw me closer to you reached a fevering pitch. Thinking of your love made all my fear of you go away and looking into your eyes gave me peace like never before similar to that of looking at streams of water.”  “I didn’t want us to waist any time getting to know and love each other more and more.”

She didn’t say this but I only give this as an example of what might have been said.  Similar to how lovers often after marriage will talk about their first dates, when then first fell in love, what they were wearing and what they felt and thought etc.

You have to ask the question “Did she say this out loud of Solomon then in the same breathe be speaking to him?”  Or “Is this her telling Solomon after the marriage what she felt and thought in her mind when she saw and smelled young Solomon at his first anointing?”

I don’t want to bore you with all the possible ways in which she could have said speaking of the newly anointed king in the 3rd person “let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips…”  out loud then immediately said speaking directly to him in the second person “for your love is more delightful than wine, but I think it only profitable to say that this verse is an expression of the love she felt in her heart at the time.

Love then has the idea of the beloved in mind.   Let “him”  the Messiah, or Christ whom I have these feelings for kiss me on the lips multiple times.  But love is not impersonal or just intellectual but deeply close, experiential and relational.  So she gives us the reason she wants him.  Its because she knows by feeling it what it is like to be love by him.  It
is better than wine.”  Therefore she says,

“for your”  Notice the switch from 3rd person language to first person.  She is now speaking to him.  If this was one of her loves that she later shared with him then this first  sentence was what was in her heart at his anointing.  Solomon knew because she shared it with him then he wrote the poem.  If she said this outlaid then he knew she loved him from the start.  It seems odd for her to say of him “let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips”  out loud at his anointing and then in the same breathe say to him “for your love is better than wine.”

So the best that I see this in a literal historical manner is that the first thing she says to the newly anointed co regent king, young Solomon is “Pleasing is the fragrance of your anointing oils…” And that Song 1:3 is the first thing she says out loud to him.  So that as she is saying 1:3 and she is sensing and having an idea of his love that affects her in a way that makes her desire a deeper level of intimacy as she thinks of who he is and what he is like and the felling is better than wine and similar to the pleasantness of smelling his ointments.

It’s important to take notice of who wants the kiss and who would be doing the kissing in order to see the power of her love to give boldness and cast out fear in her request for she is a slave girl and he is a high and holy king and she wants him to kiss her.  She wants the highest king to reciprocate the same feelings she has for him.  She is bold, courageous, fearless, humble and desires him.

As we study this passage and all of the Song for that matter, we can keep in mind Philippians 4:8 for the love of the bride to be manifests itself in a praiseworthy, mare like character, that is admirable, noble, is truth, lovely and is a manifestation of her moral excellency thus worthy to be thought about.


Desire.  “In every act of the will for or towards something not present, the soul is in some degree inclined to that thing; and that inclination, if in a considerable degree, is the very same with the affection of desire.”  JE  Desire is an affection.  Though he is close enough to smell his anointing oils, what is not present is the sense of his lips upon hers.  So she desires for him to kiss her.

Joy or Delight.  “In every degree of the act of the will, wherein the soul approves of something present, there is a degree of pleasure. (Like who he is and what he is like or his “name” in her mind and the present smell of his ointments.)  If it be sparked to a higher considerable degree of pleasure, it is the same with the affections of joy or delight.”  JE  Joy and delight are affections of the heart or soul.

Proverbs 27:9  “Oil and perfume make the heart glad.”

Love.  Her love is expressed in words.  She has a liking for him and the inclination of her soul is towards him and is in a high degree, and is vigorous and lively.   For “That liking or inclination of the soul to a thing, if it be in a high degree, and be vigorous and lively, is the same with the affection of love.”  JE

Exposition of “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips for your love is better than wine.”  Song 1:2

Let”=  This is a humble request for “love is not proud“.  He is the coming king and she is currently in slavery.  He owes her no kiss or favor.  Though it is her desire, fulfillment is up to him and when “love desires” 2:7.

“Let him”  Speaking of him.  Third person language.  She is not speaking to him but of him. Then the next sentence she is speaking to him.  Both “him” and “his lips” are in the 3rd person.  So from her perspective she is speaking of him and will in the next verse be speaking to him.

Love has him on her mind.  Let him who is on her mind kiss her.   It is the king who she would like to kiss her.  The young newly anointed king, Solomon.  Israels 3rd Messiah.

The one she loves is on her mind.   The one she has special affections for.  Him who her soul loves is on her mind.

him”  She invites us to enter their relationship through her eyes by saying “let him” in the 3rd person.  This draws us into her thoughts and feelings, viewing her desire for him from her perspective.  Most of the song is from her perspective which allows us to know shat she is thinking and feeling.  Through out the whole Love Song we will enter her mind and heart and know what she is thinking and feeling at various points of the relationship where her love was set aflame so that we can get a right idea of love.

him”  He is in her.  He is in her heart.  He is on her mind when the light and heat of love flashes.  Love has the power to unite hearts.  In order for her to get closer she must have him  and his will on her mind.   Her doves eyes are locking in on him.   Love is a flame above all other flames and when love flashes a lively idea of the one we love comes to mind.  Here the second person of the union in love is in her, in her mind similar to how the Father is in the Son for the First Person of the Trinity was always on the mind of the Second Person of the Trinity. “The First Person is in Me and I am in the First Person. John 10:38.  The Love they share is the 3rd Person, the Holy Spirit.  Christ, Solomon is the head and everyone else is the body.  The king and all his people are one.

kiss”  Let him “kiss“ me with the kisses of his lips.  A kiss is a way in which we express our love and affection to someone.  A kiss is a show of affection toward to one we love.

A kiss is mutual.  She wants him to kiss her because she is in love.  Kisses is what she wants from him but does he want to kiss her?  The lover seeks return expressions of love.  She loves him and wants him to express love and affection to him by way of kissing.  Since a kiss is mutual she also would be showing affection to him.  A kiss is an expression of love where both parties are involved.

Lord willing.  This type of kiss is desired, Lord willing.  She is single and they haven’t even met yet.  She would love to be in a closer more intimate relationship with the king but it is not promised nor guaranteed by God that she will get it, so her request is subservient to the will and Sovereignty of God.  Nothing wrong with desiring physical intimacy when single but that desire can’t be coveted but is in God’s timing in who and when.  Love is Sovereign as to the proper timing of each level of closer intimacy 2:7 and 3:5.

Culturally speaking.  In their culture a kiss between lovers was to be done in private.  A brother and sister who had the same physical mother could give a kiss in public or “outdoors” but not lovers.  See note on 8:1 Oh that you were like a brother to me who nursed at my mother’s breasts.  If I found you outdoors, I would kiss you; No one would despise me, either.”

me”  Let Him kiss “me…”  It’s the thought of him kissing her that pleases her.  She wants to be the special one.  She wants to be singled out.  She wants to be the one on his mind and in his heart.  “Let him kiss me…”   She wants to be the special one chosen by the king to have a closer more intimate relationship with.


“Now surely ’tis improper to say that our love to God is superior to our general capacity of delighting in anything. Proportionable to our love to God is our disposition to delight in his good. Now our delight in God’s good can’t be superior to our general capacity of delighting in anything; or which is the same thing, our delight in God’s good can’t be superior to our love to delight in general: for proportionably as we delight in God’s good, so shall we love that delight. A desire of and delight in God’s good, is love to God; and love to delight is self-love. Now the degree of delight in a particular thing, and the degree of love to pleasure or delight in general, ben’t properly comparable one with another; for they are not entirely distinct, but one enters into the nature of the other. Delight in a particular thing includes a love to delight in general. A particular delight in anything can’t be said to be superior to love to delight in general: for always in proportion to the degree of delight is the love a man hath to that delight. For he loves greater delight more than less, in proportion as it is greater; if he did not love it more, it would not be a greater delight to him.”

kisses”  “Let him kiss me with the kisses“  Plural, she wants multiple kisses.  Not just one but many.  Her soul hungers for his love and intimate displays of affection to be experienced by her over and over again.  She desires outward expressions of the kings love to her by way of multiple kisses.  She doesn’t feel as if she wants a kiss but multiple kisses.  One kiss will not satisfy her desire for him but repeated kissing will.  And it’s not so much physical intimacy that she wants but the fact that he would have the same feelings for her that she has for him.

Kisses”  Plural.  She wants to drink up his love.  She will drink it up and he will express his love to her in such an increasing degree that her body grows faint and he sustains her with his precious arms and loving embrace 2:6.

his lips”  “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips…”  She wants him to choose to connect his lips with “hers”.  Her desire is a more intimate one then a hug or her kissing the hand of a king to show reverence.  A physical display of tender affection by his lips is what she wants in order to bump up the level of closeness.  Since they weren’t blood family a kiss on the lips would mean that they had something more going on then just a king to his servant relationship.  She is the one hungering and thirsting for a closer more intimate physical and spiritual relationship than just that of a king to his subjects.

She wants to go from knowing of him to a more intimate knowledge of him.  She wants to be made sensibly aware of the fact that he loves her when their lips touch.

for”  “for your love is better than wine”

Her we get the reason why she wants multiple kisses on the lips from the king she loves. I like this little word “for”  because it tells us the reason why she wants to be kissed over and over again by his lips.  The word “for” is a relative conjunction used to connect two idea’s.  The idea of what she wants and why.   The word because could also be used.  Here “for” is used to connect her desire for multiple kisses from the king and the reason why.

Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips for your love is better than wine.

Is it common to kiss on the lips before marriage?  Is she wanting kisses in marriage, Lord willing?

If out loud and not just the musing of her heart as he is near her then people more than likely including Solomon can hear her.  If out loud I picture the anointing being just over and he walks by her and she thinks of his love, who he is, what he is like and prophecies about him and desires to have a closer more intimate relationship with him other than that of a king to a servant because his love was better than wine and his name was pleasing to her so she

I believe he can hear her.  This could be in her heart only but not out loud but if spoken out loud it better communicates the idea of her bold fearless love.  So I tend to go with what would better illustrate love as it is in 8:6-7.  For the outward action speaks louder than only the inward feeling.

He is near enough to smell.

for”  the basis for which she wants further multiple display of affection in marriage is because experiencing his love as the king of peace was better than wine.  Or “because” of the superlative nature of the kings love she desires to experience it in a more intimate way in marriage.

So the reason why she wants multiple displays of affection are because of the superlative nature of his love.  It is better than wine.  She has him on her mind and the thought of him kissing her multiple times is something her heart is inclined to want because of his good reputation and desire for his affection.  First she knows him and loves him for who he is and what he is like then out of that love to him she desires a closer relationship.  So the reason why she wants multiple displays of affection are because of the superlative nature of his love for it is better than wine.

for your”  From third person to first person language.  Love brought him from desiring affection of him to speaking to him.

your”   “for your love is better than wine”  From 3rd person to second person language.  They haven’t even met yet personally but she knows enough of him and his love that she wants a closer relationship with him.  Her words express her love to him and now she speaks directly to him.  “for your love”.

Here is what I picture.  David is dying and young Solomon has just been anointed king,   She is in the crowd and is close enough to smell the anointing oils on him.  It was customary for people to kiss the hand of the king, but not for him to kiss them on the lips.  But she wants kisses on the lips.  So its possible that other’s were kneeling and kissing Solomon’s hand when she says out loud “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips…”  third person.  Then he turns to her looks at her.  She looks at him with love in her doves eyes and says to him,  “for your love is better than wine.”  Second person.

for your love is better than wine

Your love”  She knows his love is better than wine.  What did she know of his love?  She had some idea of love, his love.  She knew what love was and it’s characteristics more or less to some degree or another.  Song 8:6-7 gives us 7 characteristics about love.  He had this kind of love in his heart.  She knew the specific kind of love that he had as described in 8:6-7 was better than wine which is why he was so desirable.  Two characteristics about love not described in Song 8:6-7 are that love is sovereign 2:7 and love is delightful 1:2.

It’s important to note that when she says “your love” she is directly talking about King Solomon’s love to her.  Yet at the same time it is God loving her through her union with King Solomon in love.  So it is God’s love she is experiencing through Solomon.  So it is Solomon loving her and at the same time every kiss or act of love to her from the king is God using Solomon as the person by which she experiences God’s love from.  The queen of Sheba said it this way,

“Blessed be the Lord your God who delighted in you to set you on the throne of Israel; because the Lord loved Israel forever, therefore He made you king, to do justice and righteousness.”   Here you have Solomon being so great, wise and loving a king to Israel that the queen of Sheba see’s the reason for Israel having a just and righteous king is because of God’s love to Israel.
So when I write I will say “his/His love”  because it is both Solomon (his) and God (His) loving her yet in different manners.  This I call a compounded love.  For when either the Bride or Israel are loved by Solomon, then both God and Solomon are expressing love to them, just in different manners.

What did she know about his love?  Some things she knew for sure about his love.  Some things she knew more or less to some degree and other things about his love were yet to be experienced.  So first I will list 6 characteristics about his love that she knew for sure.

1 She knew his love was superlatively powerful. 2 She knew the cruelty of loves Jealousy. 3 She knew love had sparks. 4 She knew love was a flame above all other’s. 5 She knew his love was free, priceless and unexchangeable. 6 She knew his love was sovereign.  7  She knew the high esteem and valuation that his love deserved.  8.  She knew the peace that passed her understand that came with love and was a fruit of it.  9.  Joy also comes with love and is an affection of the heart.  Delight and joy go together.

Things she knew to some degree or another and maybe fully. 7 She knew his love was unquenchable. 8 She knew his heart of love could not be overfilled. 9 She knew to some degree or another about the satisfying nature of his love.

1  She knew his love was superlatively powerful.  She tells us this fact in Song 8:6 when she tells us what she knows about the strength of love and says “love is as strong as death”.  Death is a power above human nature .  Just the same as death is a power above human nature.  Therefore love is superlative in strength. She knew the exceeding power of his love for she said from experience that “love is strong as death” 8:6.

What holds them together and brings them closer is stronger than anything that can permanently separate them.   Love unties but continuing in sin will separate.

What did his love have power to do?

I will list 6 things his love had power to that made him most desirable to her.  His love:  1 had power to unite hearts. 2 had power to irresistibly draw her closer to him. 3 had power to satisfy her soul. 4 had power to cast out fear for she has no problem wanting to get closer and more intimate with him who’s holy name was sweet. 5 had power to give light/Light.  6 Love has power to control self.

7 power to create or enflame fervent affections in her heart. ( I would venture to list more things his love had power to do at this time and Im sure there are others like loves power to promote faith and hope 1 Cor. 13:4-8 etc, I just can’t think of them now, nor am I trying to make an exhaustive list of what love has power to do.  I suppose love has power to glorify God and then all other powers love has are subordinate to that ultimate end.)

1 His love had power to unite their hearts.  Their hearts are one and become more one.  Her heart had a right idea of God.  His heart had a right idea of God.  There hearts had the same idea of God in them.  Their hearts also had the same delight in God in them.  Their hearts both also had the same holy inclination or bent to please God in them.  Love in their hearts bond their hearts together.  At least a king to servant and holy brother to holy sister.   They were of the same love, spirit, mind and soul, therefore their hearts were united in love and she knew it.  Love had power to unite hearts and she knew it.

2  His love had power to irresistibly draw her closer to him and she knew it.  She desired no other man.  Could she resist the power of love to compel her to get closer and closer to the one she loved?  No.  Even if she would not become his wife she would get closer to his as her king by serving him more and more with all her heart, mind, emotions, soul and body thus getting closer spiritually but not physically.  So love not only has power to unite hearts but also once united love has power to draw them spiritually closer and I suppose physically closer in each persons respective roles as a king gets closer to his servants, brother’s get closer to sisters, teacher gets closer to student etc.

3 She knew that his love had power to satisfy her soul more than wine did.  His love had an ability to make her happy, joyful, content and satisfied.  Worldly possessions and wine will not satisfy like true love does from God through a godly man. Wine makes the heart glad (Ps 104:15, Psalm 4:7) and so does love, but true love from God satisfies the heart and soul of man better than wine.

4  His love had power to cast out fear for she had no problem wanting to get closer and more intimate with the newly anointed king because his name was sweet and pleasant to  her like perfume being poured out.  Had the king been selfish at the time and not loving then women would fear entering into any type of relationship with Solomon.  Yet since Solomon loved God 1 Kings 3:3 his character was that of love.  She also had the same love Solomon had in her heart.  Since she knew Solomon had love in his heart and she had love in her heart then there is no reason for fear.  This is why Solomon gives her the compliment of being like a mare in battle in Song 1:9 because of her fearless pursuit of him.  Her words and actions proved she was fearless and she knew it.   She knew love had power to cast out fear.

5  Love had power to give light.  By light here I mean knowledge, joy and life.  This is why she compared love to a flame in 8:6.  A flame gives light.  Light gives knowledge of what is in the dark.  A flame gives joy and comfort to those who are cold by feeling what warmth is.  And a flame gives life for it gives off light as the sun gives life to plants.  What knowledge did love give her that made receiving it from the king better than wine?  1  Knowledge.  When love is communicated to the heart, the knowledge of God comes with it.  She partook of the nature of God who is love.  The essence and nature of God was in her heart.  So the lights went on in the sense that she got right understanding of the character and nature of God by sensing love in her heart and seeing knowing what it is by seeing an action.  We know the sun is hot by sensing it or feeling it so heat and warmth are known best by feeling it.  So is jealousy.  If i were to define Jealousy, then you really wouldn’t truly know what jealousy was until you felt it.  Some things are best known not by definition but by sense.  Someone who has never felt the love of God may know it by sight but not by sense or feeling for love is better felt and seen in action than defined.  So love is a light that gives knowledge of what it is by it being communicated to the heart by sense and the mind by knowledge. (there are more and better things to say here)

6  Love had power to control selfish desires.  The fruit of the Spirit is love.  One of the fruits of love is self control.  Holiness consists in love.  Where you see someone love then they don’t sin.  The fruit of love is a holy life.  The fruits of love communicated to the heart by the Holy Spirit are joy in God, peace, patience in trials, kindness to everyone, gentleness like a mother to a baby, faithfulness to promises and self control.  Along with her love to Israel’s Messiah, she had love to and joy in God and she knew it.  She also had peace with God and felt it.  She knew she could patiently wait for sexual intimacy.   She knew she had kindness because she responded in kindness to the staring daughters of Jerusalem.  She knew faithfulness to God to some degree or another.  She knew that since Solomon would build the temple, rule in justice and righteousness that he would be faithful to God in those regards.  And since Solomon loved God he also had some degree of self control and also obeyed the statutes of David.  So Solomon was an obedient son of David.  1 Kings 3:3.

7  She knew what it looked like in action and tasted like in the soul, therefore she knew the praiseworthiness of it.  Worthy to be praised more than wine!    Song 1:4

8 She knew the peace that passed her understanding that came with the joy. Song 5:12 and Gal. 5:22.  She looked into his eyes and felt tranquility and peace at his first anointing.

Look at the high valuation, the people have of ‘him” and why expressed in her words,  “How right they are to adore him” the king of kings, who’s love was worthy of praise “more than wine”.  As his subjects, the people of Israel rejoiced and delighted in experiencing God’s love through his son, the king of peace. For they said “we will rejoice and delight in you.” In who?  In their newly anointed Messiah and king, “We will praise his love more than wine.”  1:4

Remember also that a delight in the manifestation of God’s love is a delight in God.  A rejoicing in the experience of God’s love through a mediator is a rejoicing and delighting in God.

She also knew the satisfying nature of his/His love to more or less of some degree in 4 ways.  See note on “better than”.

For more details on what she knew of his love go here  Love satisfies.

“your love”  “Your loves”  Love her is plural.  Loves.  Its a masculine plural construct.  His multiple displays of affection.  Each kiss is an act of love and his loves, plural, are better than wine.

your love”  Your love.  Who’s love?  The love of Israel’s 3rd Messiah, the love of a king of peace, the love of a child of God “he will be my son”,  the love of a husband, the love of a great type of Jesus Christ, the love of the son of David, the love of a beloved son of God (Jedidiah).  As the only beloved chosen next Messiah of Israel, Solomon remembered being taught wisdom by his father David.  Prov. 4:3

She would not only have affection for the newly anointed Messiah but would also have affection for the coming Messiah.  If she knew Gen 3 and believed the promises of the coming Messiah, then she would also have love to him or Him if  she knew him to be God.  Whatever was the minimum to believe about and in the coming Messiah in order for salvation was believed by her for she had love, true love in her heart which has for its primary foundation God.   It’s out of this love to God that her faith in God is promoted when she learns of His promises of the coming Messiah, Savior and King of Israel for “love believes” 1 Cor. 13 all of what God says.  Love to God enables one to believe what the Scriptures say about the coming “head” crusher of Gen 3:15.  She loved God.  She loved the coming Messiah, Solomon who was like the coming Messiah, Jesus Christ.  She loved the coming Messiah but didn’t know his name to be Jesus Christ like we do.   She would have known him as the coming Christ or Messiah or anointed one.  The same love that dwelt in Solomon, a promised Messiah of Israel, dwelt in her as it also dwelt in and came from God and is also in every believer.

“love”  A power beyond our ability to must up and do on our own for love is strong as death.  Her is a key to staying humble.  Knowing you have a power given to you that you didn’t have at birth.  A power to truly and sincerely love.

your love” 1:2 and 1:4.  The love of the king.  Yet also the Love of God.  She wants to experience God’s love through His son the king of peace.  The love of God is the most suitable entertainment of the soul of man, which naturally desires the happiness of society, or of the strictest union with the One/ones we love.  Love of a wise king, messiah, shepherd etc.  She wants to experience in marriage the height, depth, width and length of his/His love.


When we call to mind Christ’s love, it should be with the exercise of mutual love .

“The Spirit is the mutual love of the Father and the Son.”

The spiritual image of God consists in our being holy, as God is holy; in having a holy and divine principle in the heart.  Love in the heart.

the hearts of the saints do often Burn within them when divine things are held forth to them for Love is an ardent Principle tis as it were the warmth or heat of the soul. no wonder that the Presenting of things before the soul that & has a Principle of divine Love to stirs up the principle.  JE

His “love” of benevolence was more delightful than wine.  “Love of benevolence is that affection or propensity of the heart to any being,1 which causes it to incline to its well-being, or disposes it to desire and take pleasure in its happiness…. and doesn’t include true beauty in the object beloved.”

love” “loves”  Tokens of love.  Plural.  All the various ways he expresses love.  King, shepherd, friend, husband, lover etc.  God being an infinite fountain of good is as it were infinitely communicative, or infinitely overflowing, and therefore the communication of how great abundance soever. “God is love” (1 John 4:16). His essence being love, he is as it were an infinite ocean of love without shores and bottom, yea, and without a surface.

“love”  1:2 and 8:6  From God, is something of God, and to God.  Love of God, Gods love like a flame.  A love to divine things for the beauty of their moral excellency, is the beginning and spring of all holy affections. When love flashes a beholding the moral beauty of God and a delight therein , delight yourself in the LORD that is the spring of the flame.  A taste is given and then the holy emotion of love will manifest itself in Song 1:2-4 differently than 1:7 or any other passage.

is”  the word is bring certainty and absoluteness to the facts.  You can have no doubt about it for his love is more delightful than wine.  “is” also let us know that her experience of his love as king is in the present tense.  Yet she desires closer and more intimate shows of affection for this is what love desires.   Love desires the closest and strictest union in every way with the one it loves.

“Covenantal Love”  A king to his people.  A king has a role to fulfill.  Be king.  Be God’s best representative here on earth.

How can two enemies live at peace with one another?  Through their love to and union with husband/Husband the king of peace, the king to whom peace belongs, the king that will make true peace with his enemies by their proving their love by submitting to the Law of Moses.   The king would rule using the “Law of Moses”.   Anyone wanting to experience God’s peace through their union in love with Israel’s Messiah would prove it by their love or submission to God.  Peace with God and man is best seen in the person and work of Israel’s third Messiah, Solomon, God’s beloved son, Jedidiah.  Solomon’s love to his enemies couldn’t be bought, they had to give it to him freely.  For if all the money in the world were given for the Messiah’s gracious love/Love it would be utterly scorned.

better”  “Your love is better”  Israel’s coming king had a special kind of love in his heart for his love was better than wine.

How is it that his love is better?   Love is satisfying.  Love is worthy of higher esteem or value.

Love is soul satisfying in nature in 3 respects.  1 It finds what it’s looking for and seeks no other real enjoyment.  2  Love answers the expectation of the appetite.  3  The satisfaction from love is permanent. 4  Love is a spiritual good that satisfies as to degree. Spiritual good is satisfying, as there is enough in it, to satisfy the soul, as to degree…

1  Her soul rests satisfied in no other enjoyment.  Love answers in kind.  Spirit satisfies Spirit.  Love is of the Spirit.  We were created to enjoy God who is love.  When we experience God’s love through a mediator it satisfies the soul in a way that makes it truly rest.  Not seeking a greater or higher good, satisfaction or feeling.  Wine leaves the soul thirsting for something better.  Something that could satisfy the soul.  God’s love however it manifests itself, when seen or experienced (by kisses) and delighted in is better than wine.  Because after the experience of wine the soul of the person is still not satisfied but is left searching for fulfillment. But after the experience of God’s love through a mediator by way of kissing, forgiving, Biblically shepherding, leading, guiding, providing, protecting, feeding, being patient etc.  is better than any earthly pleasure without love.

Spiritual love in its kind “is fully adapted to the nature, capacity and need of the soul of man. So that those who find them, desire no other kind of enjoyments; they sit down fully contented with that kind of happiness which they have, desiring no change, nor inclining to wander about any more, saying who will show us any good? The soul is never cloyed, never weary; but perpetually giving up itself, with all its powers, to this happiness. But not that those who have something of this happiness, desire no more of the same.” JE

2  “They are satisfying also in this respect, that they answer the expectation of the appetite. When the appetite is high to anything, the expectation is consequently so. Appetite to a particular object, implies expectation in its nature. This expectation is not satisfied by worldly enjoyments, the man expected to have a great accession of happiness, but he is disappointed. But it is not so with spiritual enjoyments; they fully answer and satisfy the expectation.” JE

3  “The gratification and pleasure of spiritual enjoyments is permanent. ‘Tis not so with worldly enjoyments. They in a sense satisfy particular appetites; but the appetite in being satisfied, is glutted, and then the pleasure is over: and as soon as that is over, the general appetite of human nature after happiness returns; but is empty, and without anything to satisfy it. So that the glutting of a particular appetite, does but take away from, and leave empty, the general thirst of nature.”  JE

4 “Spiritual good is satisfying, as there is enough in it, to satisfy the soul, as to degree, if obstacles were but removed, and the enjoying faculty duly applied. There is room enough here for the soul to extend itself; here is an infinite ocean of it. If men ben’t satisfied here, in degree of happiness, the cause is with themselves; ’tis because they don’t open their mouths wide enough.”  JE

ecc. 5:10 He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he that loveth abundance with increase

Love is worthy of higher esteem or value.    The effects of wine are of little value compared the affect his love has upon her.   Love is better than wine because it’s intrinsic value is greater than wine.  Therefore those who see loves greater value promise to praise it.  “We will praise your love more than wine.”  1:4.  To praise love is to use words the express high esteem of it.  So high is the value of love that its priceless and “if someone where to give the whole substance of his household for love, the offer would be utterly scorned.”  Song 8:7

This is the beginning of her, as the puritans would say, “Experimental knowledge” of and with Solomon.  Experimental because real and felt.  She not only knew of Solomon but now for the first time she felt what it was like to be in a love relationship with him particularly as her king and yet desires more intimate experiential knowledge of and with him.

She knew it.  The fact that his love was better was known by experience.

What made his love special or better than wine?

The thought and feeling of experiencing his love and the thought and feeling of experiencing wine are compared.  There is something similar in the comparison.  Both “gladden the heart”  Psalm 104:15 or make a person happy.  But his love is better.

You can’t desire to much for love is a Good Thing.  Greater and greater degree’s of it are not only commanded but possible.  Whereas greater and greater degree’s of enjoyment from wine alone can’t be achieved. Imagine the greatest pleasures on earth being experienced with love being a lawful and holy thing, even commanded by God.  “Drink your fill of love”  Song 5:1

This desire for more of the same comes from a right idea of love.  Love is infinite.  In any right idea of love is the fact that as to the degree of it, there is no limits.  And we will forever get closer to God and other’s for love has an infinite degree of power to unite hearts and souls.

Verses that help us understand different aspects as to love being better.  Love anywhere is better than great treasure without it,  Love is better with little earthly goods than more without it.  A holy loving life with little is better than riches unjustly gained.  Love makes everything better.  Even worldly enjoyment are better with holy love then any other enjoyment without it.

Better is a little with the fear of the Lord Than great treasure and turmoil with it.


Better is a dish of vegetables where love is Than a fattened ox served with hatred.

Better is a little with righteousness Than great income with injustice.

A love that we aren’t born with.

“better than”  “for your love is better than wine”  She knows his love is better than by way of comparison.  She has experiential knowledge of both and love is better than wine.

5  His love is better because it is the love of a man with a new heart.  Solomon “loved God”  1 Kings 3:3.  When she speaks of his love she is talking about a superlative love and its holy jealousy as described in Song 8:6.  ”  Love is strong as death, its jealousy being as cruel as Sheol, it being a flame above all other’s, unquenchable and priceless.”  A non believer can’t have this kind of love in their heart.  To have this kind of love in the heart is a gift of God.  No one is born with this kind of love in their heart.  All of us are born with a common evil love called self love.  And the thoughts and intents of our hearts are evil continually.  Gen. 6:5  So both of these lovers had a change of heart.   What is commonly thought of as love really isn’t love according to the description of love in Song 8:6 and 1 Corinthians 13:4-8.  Until someone has true love in their heart every word and act that looks like love on the outside is worthy of punishment from God and is not praiseworthy.  Solomon’s love was praiseworthy above wine.  “We will praise your love more than wine.”  Song 1:4

If you were to receive a gift, love in the form of kisses in marriage from God’s son, Israels messiah or wine.  Which would you choose?

A man with true love can forgive.  A man with true love will not delight in evil but rejoice in the truth.

“you love is more delightful than wine”  Her delight in in His love because it is a holy love and since holiness consists in love, her delight is in his holiness and holy name.  Therefore the love here on display in her word is a love of complacency.  For the “love of benevolence is a delight in beholding the prosperity of another, as complacency is delighting in the beauty of another.” JE
“Your love is better”  People don’t forget the first spark of true love.  It’s why first dates are often celebrated, remembered and reflected upon.


What is characteristic about his love that makes it better?

It is more delightful, it satisfies the soul so that it seeks no higher or better good, comes with no guilt, can’t desire to much of it.

Better”  Wine puts a person in “high spirits” 2 Sam. 13:28.

It is true that wine can bring about “gladnessPsalm 4:7  but God can put a gladness in the heart that is “more than” when wine is in abundance.

Makes glad  Ps. 104:15.  “Refreshes those exhausted in the wilderness.”  2 Sam. 16:2

More to be desired are they than gold, Yea, than much fine gold; Sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.  119:103

Love in its nature, is fully adapted to the “nature and capacity of the soul of man.”  JE  Her experience with wine left her empty.   The soul is still left searching when love from God through a mediator is not experienced.  Her soul would not be fully satisfied with wine.

more delightful”  The bride to be wants to experience God’s love through Israels king and messiah because his love is more delightful than wine.  The wisest kings love was of a superlative nature.  The delightfulness of it was better than wine.  When both felt and understood love is the souls relish of the supreme excellency of the divine nature (wether it be seen in God, Through the Son and felt in the fellowship of the Holy Spirit in meditation or experienced by a husband, king, pastor shepherd, father or friend.) inclining the heart to God as it’s chief good for his/His love is more delightful than wine.

“better”  more delightful is one aspect among many others whereby his love is better than wine. “Now surely ’tis improper to say that our love to God is superior to our general capacity of delighting in anything. Proportionable to our love to God is our disposition to delight in his good. Now our delight in God’s good can’t be superior to our general capacity of delighting in anything; or which is the same thing, our delight in God’s good can’t be superior to our love to delight in general: for proportionably as we delight in God’s good, so shall we love that delight. A desire of and delight in God’s good, is love to God; and love to delight is self-love. Now the degree of delight in a particular thing, and the degree of love to pleasure or delight in general, ben’t properly comparable one with another; for they are not entirely distinct, but one enters into the nature of the other. Delight in a particular thing includes a love to delight in general. A particular delight in anything can’t be said to be superior to love to delight in general: for always in proportion to the degree of delight is the love a man hath to that delight. For he loves greater delight more than less, in proportion as it is greater; if he did not love it more, it would not be a greater delight to him.”  JE

The love and joy that she has here, is exceeding great and vigorous; impressing her heart with the strongest and most lively sensation of inexpressible sweetness, mightily moving, animating, and engaging her like a flame of fire.

More pleasant more refreshing.

Wine and anointing oils are good but love is better.

Their love of God, holiness and moral beauty draws them together,

A love to God for the beauty and sweetness of his moral excellency or holiness is the first beginning and spring of all holy emotions.

Jesus Christ is not only the legal head of the saints. As their head, he is their representative, and their head of government, but also their vital head, their head of influence and communication, and that both of holiness and happiness. He is as it were their head of enjoyment, so that they enjoy all things in him, and as communicating and partaking with him; as when many streams issue from [a] fountain, they all are united to the fountain, and partake of its fullness, every canal has its mouth inserted and immersed into that full fountain. And as the members of the body all partake of the life, and health, and welfare of the head by the nerves, those from every limb of the body are terminated in the head; so the saints, being in Christ as members of his body, or branches on a vine, all partake according to the measure of their capacity of his fullness. John 1:16, “And of his fullness have all we received, and grace for grace.” So that as we may be sure God begrutches nothing to the head or fountain, so nothing is too much for the members according to their capacity {of his fullness}. For they are happy by partaking of Christ’s glory and joy. John 17:13, “That my joy may be fulfilled in themselves.”

“More Delightful”  better than or of a higher quality or ability to delight the soul and body rather than wine that only delights the body but has no transforming power of its own to truly and fully satisfy the holy ardent desirous heart.

Her soul has tasted what it is like to be loved by the king of peace with a love that is Spiritual in Nature.  Of the soul satisfying Nature.  The communication of who He is and His Gracious Love for us understood by understanding who the coming Messiah is and Through knowing what He does motivated by Love helps us in the OT know what true love is.  True Love to God is reflected in the person and work of the coming Messiah.  It is the coming Messiah who also has a part in drawing himself closer to Himself.

The one that makes her the happiest is who she wants.

She has a sense and tastes with her soul the delightfulness of Israel’s king love.  His Character or name is excellent, king of kings with unmeasurable wisdom and love to God, which is his beauty and she has a sense of its sweetness and beauty.

She is sensible that his character is excellent.
“sweeter than honey to my lips” Ps 119:103

more delightful”  Any manifestation of the love of God delighted in, is a rejoicing in the glory of God.  She proclaims the superlative excellency of the nature of the kings love by stating that it is more delightful than wine.  To experience God’s flame of Love through union and communion with Israel’s greatest messiah was better than wine and she wanted more of it, yet in a more intimate way than just King to servant, but King to Queen.  And she desired the kiss of a friend as well.  She was a sunburnt enemy to the throne of God’s son the king of peace who ruled the nations from Jerusalem and now she desires to be treated as a friend and in the family of God by union and communion with him in marriage.

“Happiness itself does more immediately and essentially consist in Christian grace wrought by the influences of the Spirit. Man’s highest happiness consists in holiness. It is by this the reasonable creature is united to God, the fountain of all good. Happiness does so essentially consist in knowing and loving and serving God, and having a holy and divine temper of soul, and the lively exercises of it, that those things will make a man happy without anything else. But no other enjoyments or privileges whatever will make a man happy without this.”

more delightful than wine” or “better than wine”More delightful than an other earthly pleasure.   In drinking wine you can have excess.  But in the experience of the love of God through a mediator there is no excess!  Drink you fill and desire all the more! as that which is more pleasant and refreshing than wine.  Tis a sweet flame,  it is delightful.  His love is sweet and delightful.  The sweetness of his love is due to his “name” being holy and not evil.

They are those who have freely chosen that happiness which is to be had in the exercise and enjoyment of such love as is in heaven above all other conceivable happiness. They see and understand so much of this as to know that this is the best good. They do not merely assent that it is so from rational arguments which may be offered for it, but they have seen that it is so; they know it is so from what little they have tasted. It is the happiness of love, and the happiness of a life of such love, heavenly love, holy and humble and divine love; love to God, and love to Christ, and love to saints for God’s and Christ’s sake, and the enjoyment of the fruits of God’s love, holy communion with God and Christ and with holy persons. This is what they have a relish for.

more delightful

Oxytocin is a hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, a pea-sized structure at the base of the brain. It’s sometimes known as the “cuddle hormone” or the “love hormone,” because it is released when people snuggle up or bond socially.

delightful”  Their mutual joy in each other is answerable to the nearness of their relation and strictness of their union.  With him as her king and her one of God’s people under Solomon’s theocratic Monarchy makes their union stricter than if she were an enemy of God.  As a personal good shepherd of her heart they get even closer, as Friend even closer and closer still is the intimacy she would get with him as her husband.

The knowledge she has of his love is sensible for love and delight are feelings.

She doesn’t only speculate and behold his holy person and work as Israel’s Messiah and anointed king but also relishes and feels what its like to be loved by him for his love is more more “delightful than wine”.  The immediate object of her mind was the supreme beauty and excellency of his name that carried with it a sense and taste in her heart that was more delightful than wine.

Men apart from any union with God are natural enemies of God in the relish of their souls. This enmity has been overcome by loves power to enable her to sense the superlative delightfulness of God’s love through her union in love with God’s Messiah.  They have an inbred distaste  and disrelish of God’s perfections.  Love is one of God’s perfection which their souls have no power to “taste” Heb. 6:4-5.

Pleasing is the fragrance of you ointments. Your name is like ointment poured forth.

Song 1:2-3

The Song starts off with the bride to be expressing her love to the king she says:

Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips, for you love is more delightful than wine.  Pleasing is the fragrance of your perfume, your name is like perfume poured out.  Therefore, the virgins love thee.”

The scene is the first anointing of Israel’s 3rd Messiah, young Solomon.  She is close enough to smell the anointing oils.

That is, he was so excellent a person that at the very thought of who he was and what he was like, or the knowledge of his attributes, thinking of his moral beauties, filled the heart with delight similar to how the pouring out anointing oils gives pleasure to her senses.  So she falls in love at the first sight and smell of him.  This is where it all began.

1.  Overall Observations of Song 1:2-4

Transition, location, level of closeness.

The bride to be has the greatest type of Christ on her mind and senses his love in her heart for it is more delightful than wine.

She had heard of Israel’s coming Messiah’s, Solomon and The Christ.   He would be the promised son of David who sat on “God’s throne” in Jerusalem  2 Chronicles.9:8.  As a little child, king Solomon was gifted with unmeasurable wisdom 1 Kings 4:23 after Solomon’s selfless prayer for young king Solomon loved Israel more than riches.

She desires the nearest relationship and most intimate union.


Delightful thoughts of the king/King were in her mind and heart.   She had on her mind the king/King to whom peace belongs.  Solomon was a type of Christ.   Solomon, the greatest type of Christ living was on the bride to be’s mind and heart.   Solomon’s “name” was like perfume poured out.  This is no evil person she delights in.  Solomon’s name, who he was, promised messiah, prophet, priest and “king of kings” Solomon’s name was so pleasing to hear, no wonder all the other single girls desired him.  But she wants him so she says.

Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips, for your love is more delightful than wine.  Pleasing is the fragrance of your perfume, your name is like perfume poured out, no wonder the maidens love you.  Take me away with you.  Let us hurry.  Let the king take me into his chambers.”  Solomon’s Song of Songs 1:2-4

The bride to be has subjective feelings of love based on the object character of the one she loves.

Where are they at?  What is the location?

Level of closeness.

Here the bride desires the closest most intimate relationship with the king in marriage. Her actions later prove this love to be true, but for now she earnestly desires oneness with him.

Her love to him is expressed in words that communicate her desire for a stricter and more intimate relationship with Israel’s coming king/King.  And we will find that’s its thru their union and communion in love that the two get close and closer to the point where his heart and hers where the same because of loves supernatural powers.

The question that keeps jumping out at you is, “What is it about this guy that makes him so desirable?”

2.  Definitions

Love=  Her love to God and Solomon.  Love is the souls relish of the supreme excellency or holiness of the Divine Nature inclining the heart toward God as its chief good.

Benevolent love


Love of complacency

Unition=an act of uniting or the state of being united.





Song 1:3a

Pleasing is the fragrance of your ointments, your name is like perfume poured out.”

pleasing”  Delightful.  As to love of COMPLACENCE, it is twofold. There is a complacence only in this enlargement and union. One that is united has a kind of delight in the object, which is a more primary exercise of virtue; but complacence in it as beautiful or virtuous is more secondary.


Solomon had the most pleasing name, for it was above all other names 1 kings 3:13

“the fragrance of your ointments

Solomon wore perfume or ointments as a high priest and also to smell nice.  Since the context is not known then I take perfumes to be every all of Solomon’s perfumes.  Solomon was a type of Christ in the office of high priest.  Solomon was like Jesus in his work as high priest, in the things pertaining to God.  The aroma of specific ointments were unique only to be used in the temple, where the Beauty of the LORD was beheld by David in Psalm 27:4  Like if you smelled that perfume that was so pleasing you knew you were near a great type of Christ.  What a blessing to be near Solomon 1 Kings 10:8

ointments”  These would have been “precious”  Psalm 133:2  and the time of his first anointing would signify that peace in the promised land was near as soon as David died.  God’s people would be blessed with unity.

Solomon was a Messiah, not “The Messiah”.

We see the priests anointed with oil, symbolizing that they’re set apart to God. That started in Exodus 28 with the great high priest, the first high priest Aaron, and it passed on through the priesthood. And then we see in 1 Kings when we meet the prophet Elijah that prophets were anointed with oil. This ritual was symbolic of their consecration to unique service to God.

Now messiah then means “anointed one.” In the Old Testament it’s used thirty-nine times, the term. Twenty-eight of those thirty-nine it refers to kings. So kings were the most frequently anointed people. But many others were anointed, as I mentioned, that aren’t necessarily described in Scripture. That would be the priests and the prophets.

The verb when it appears is passive, it’s passive. This kind of official setting apart, this kind of symbolic anointing, was done by someone to this individual who had been set apart for high duty. We would say, then, that a messiah is someone who has been anointed in an official way as a sacred declaration of consecration to God for a special duty: a king to rule; a priest to intercede and mediate; and a prophet to preach, proclaim truth.

And, as I said, there were many such messiahs among the kings and priests and prophets of the Old Testament. Make a note: none of them is ever called “Savior,” and none of them is ever called “Lord,” and none of them is ever called “the Messiah.” But when you come to the New Testament and you meet the Lord Jesus Christ, the language is, “We have found the Messiah, that you might believe that Jesus is the Messiah, the Son of God.” He is presented in the New Testament as the consummate, comprehensive Anointed One, who sums up all that a king could be, all that a priest could be, and all that a prophet could be. And at the same time, He is the one and only Lord and Savior of the world. JM

Zadok the high priest had just anointed young Solomon with “the horn of oil” 1 kings 1:39 at Gihon 1:45.  People were rejoicing and playing trumpets so that the ground shook. 1:40.  Then the feast.  Gihon spring video.

“Your name”  She is speaking to him not of him.

“Your name”  His name.  Him who she wants kisses from. “his name”  Its a sense of the value and beauty of “him” that inclines her heart to him.  The excellency of his name and nature are the foundations of all this is valuable in him making “him” the most desirable lover and king. “him”  Her delight is in him, who he is and his love is delightful.  Ps. 22:8

your name is like perfume poured out

His excellency and her holy love of complacence in him/Him are bountifully and lively set forth in this expression.  Such was her sense of his loveliness and so great was her delight in him that she loved his very name.  It was pleasing and precious to her.  “His name was like perfume poured out,”  lesson click here.


In the next section I will go over 1 What’s in a name?  2 Solomon had two names. 3 Solomon’s titles (and roles).  3  His relations.  4  Solomon’s character.  5 Christian vs non Christian qualities.  6  Prophecies about Solomon.   7  What she knew of his name for sure from the Song.

It’s important to go through all of these because they are the reasons why young king Solomon was so desirable to have as a king, friend, Messiah, brother in YHWH.

1  What is in a name?

What is included in a name is 1 Who a person is.  2 What they are like.  3  Anything that could be known about them including Prophecies about them.  4  Titles.  5  Relations.  6  What they have done or will do.

So its not the sound or her physical ear hearing the sounds in the name “Solomon” that pleases her, it’s the idea she has of who he is, what he is like, what he has done, what he will do all in relation to her being united to him in love that was so pleasing to her.  The sweetest name she has ever thought of thus far.  (taking the idea that one’s love for God can’t be expressed to Him any further and deeper than our love to His bride.  The degree of glory 2 Cor. 3:18 in the heart when doing the act is the same degree of glory that is given to God.  For the act of love is made completed when beings ad extra love one another.)

What did she know of newly anointed young co regent king?  So I will list everything that was possible for her to know about Solomon prior to her being close enough to smell his anointing oils.  So at a minimum she knew enough to be swift, powerful and fearless in her pursuit of a closer more intimate relationship with him.
She knew of his love and this is clear because she says it was better than wine.  Knowing him and his love was enough to cast out fear and give her boldness like a mare in battle.

The reason I bring it down to the bare minimum is because then this is what we can know for sure.  Everything else that is possible is only possible.  But what is for sure that she knew of him?  She knew of his love.  She knew his name was pleasing.

She had his love in her because she could sense it.  She knew they had the same love.  He loved her as her king and she loved him as her king, but she wanted a more intimate relationship than that.

2 Solomon had two names.

Solomon and Jedidiah were his names.  Solomon meaning peace or often said king to whom peace belongs.

Jedidiah, loved by God. 2 Sam. 12:24-25. Beloved son of God. Solomon was a “son of God”. Beloved “son of God” 2 Sam. 12:24-25. Solomon was a son of God. This speaks of his relationship to and with God. Solomon was not a child of the devil. Solomon was born of God and was God’s son. Solomon’s other name Jedidiah carries with it the idea of being loved by God, therefore Solomon was a beloved son of God.

A Messiah of Israel and Gentile nations. Anointed king, knew God was with him. 1 Chronicles 28:20

3  Solomon’s titles/roles

Messiah, king, Shepherd of people and sheep,


Israel’s promised Messiah, Anointed king, Christ, Wisest Prophet, Priest and king of kings 2 Chronicles 9:26+,

“He shall build a house for My name, and he shall be My son and I will be his father; and I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel forever.’
We know what Solomon was like by his character and names
Solomon was to rule righteously and just.  One of the ways it would be better for justice on courtroom day is to have many children to vouch for you.  Psalm 127:5

Prophecies about Solomon

2 Sam. 7:12-14

Psalm 72

What’s in a name. Solomon’s names. Solomon’s titles and relations. Solomon’s character. Prophecies about Solomon. Christian vs non Christian qualities. What she knew of his name.

Common grace qualities and supposed virtues verses true Christian virtue.   I make a distinction because many people are not outright bad or evil in our eyes but are in God’s.  Humans are not as corrupt because of God’s common grace.  Virtues that are distinct only to believers are because of God’s special grace to believer only and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.

Common.  Common to all people are character qualities like  honesty, justice, generosity, supposed good nature, manners, or being smart.  These are good and to some degree common to all.

Special.  These are special virtues that only a believer can have because God has put a principle of true love in their heart.   Theses are a holy faith, love, humility, and heavenly mindedness.

Heavenly mindedness.  They have their minds “set on the things above”. Heavenly, those noble appetites after heavenly and spiritual enjoyments, a noble ambition after heavenly glory, a contempt of the trifles and mean things of this world.

There is a difference.  Many people desire to have the happy oneness the couple made it to by the end of the Song but will not because the feelings they have were less than the love described in Song 8:6-7.  Yet a true believer will have the love inside their heart as described in the Song and will forever get closer and closer to any and all believers and Christ.

4  Solomon’s Character

Character of a believer or someone born again.  1  Holy faith.  2  Sacrificial love.  3  Godly wisdom.  4  Humility.  5  Heavenly Minded.  6  Godly sorrow that leads to repentance. 7  Grace tends to tranquility, as it mortifies tumultuous desires and passions, subdues the eager and insatiable appetites of the sensual nature and greediness after the vanities of the world. It mortifies such principles as hatred, variance, emulation, wrath, envyings, and the like, which are a continual source of inward uneasiness and perturbation; and supplies those sweet, calming, and quieting principles of humility, meekness, resignation, patience, gentleness, forgiveness, and sweet reliance on God.  8 Holy and right motives  9  Private and Biblical prayer life

Qualities or characteristics that are common to both the sinner and saint.  Believer and non believers can have honesty, justice, generosity, supposed good nature and social skills or manners.

1  Holy faith.  In love to God there is faith for love promotes and cherishes faith.  What God says those who have love to God will believe Him.  So those who love God have a holy faith and also believes righteousness is by that faith Gen. 15:6.

2  Love.  Solomon’s was characterized as a man of love.  He loved God  1 Kings 3:3.  Solomon not only loved God but also loved His people and would love them. Solomon cared to be a wise king for the good of God’s people.  So Solomon asked for wisdom and not riches.  Solomon was not selfish in his prayers.  Nor was Solomon selfish in his love to his first wife Song 8:7.

3  Wisdom

Solomon’s Character after Song 3:11 but before he grew old.

Solomon had knowledge of God.  2 Chronicles

What she knew of his name for sure from 1:2-4.

All of which both Solomon and Jesus Christ would have in common.

1 That his/His “love was better than wine.”
2 That his “name” was pleasing to her.
3 That he would be the next “king” of Israel.
4 That he was anointed by God, for his “anointing oils” were “pleasing” to her.

5  His desirableness was obvious.  “No wonder the maidens love you.

What could have been known about Solomon at his anointing.

1  Psalm 72,  2 That he was anointed,  3  That he was a son of king David  Prov. 4:2.     4  David taught Solomon to get wisdom when he was young.  Prov.  4:3-9

What she could have known about Solomon before his first anointing.

1  What could have been known about Solomon in 2 Sam. 7:12-14

2  What could have been known about Solomon in Psalm 72

3  The truths about Solomon on or before 1 Kings 1:38

4  The Song of Ascents 120-134 were sung yearly by Jews going up to Jerusalem.  So she would have overheard these off and on through out her life since she was near Gihon where she met young Solomon and fell in love.  In a different sense we are on our way to the holy city as well.

This is important because when she says his “name” was pleasing to her in Song 1:3 what is included in his name can only be things known about Solomon up and including what was said at his anointing because when she smell his anointing oils thoughts of who he was, what he was like and would do were in her head.  So Solomon did not have unmeasurable wisdom yet until after David died.  David is still alive for a time after Solomon’s first anointed.  God came to Solomon at night after Song 3:11 and 1 Chron. 29:22.    I do not doubt that she knew Solomon would be wise in order to be a king of peace, build the temple and be a prophet but in their courtship Solomon was wise but didn’t have unmeasurable wisdom until his wedding night.  2 Chronicles 1:12



“NAME”  Character

“wisdom”  “knowledge”  2 Chron. 1:12  Which knowledge is “knowledge of God”  Knowledge of the love of God.   Knowledge of His Name.  Knowledge of who He Is and His love to Israel.   Herein Israel’s Messiah and king loved his bride as God loved Israel.  We know the things Solomon did and we know the motive of his heart  Song 8:6, 1:2-3, “fully devoted” to God. 1 Kings 11:4  Understanding to discern what is right.

He was a “beloved and friend” above all others Song 5:11,16, son of David, 3rd Messiah of Israel, who sat on the “throne of God” in Jerusalem 2 Chronicles 9:8.  Built a house where God came to dwell with man.   As far as I can tell Solomon was the greatest type of Christ to have ever lived!   Of course Solomon sinned and so did all the other messiahs.   Solomon sinned at the end of his life 1 Kings 11:4.


  1.  After Song 3:11 Solomon had unmeasurable wisdom
    1. Understanding the love of a mother to her child.
  2. Had the Love of God dwelling in him
    1. Was not selfish but loved God’s people by prayed for wisdom rather than riches 1 Kings 3
    2. Love suffers, as Christ.   Being a father after a hard days work is difficult, but if you love your wife and kids you will do some cleaning and then lead your family in some devotions from the Bible.
    3. Had love to his wife in his heart. Song 8:6
    4. Loved God in his heart.  1 Kings 3:3 “And Solomon loved the Lord,”
  3. Future.   He would be “Strong and courageous” in building the temple 1 Chronicles 28:20.   Solomon at the time of his wedding at a young age 3:11, 1 Chronicles 28:20.  Yet the building of the temple was prophecied by God, therefore Solomon would be strong and courageous and finish the task because God promised it.

Relational Aspects

Son of David, Beloved above all other beloved’s Song 5:9, Friend above all other friends, Brother,

Key Truths

He was born king of the Jews 1 Chronicles 22:9

Of the Tribe of Judah.    Ultimately, the most important Judahite is King David. The tribe of Judah was the first to raise him to the kingship in Hebron (2Sam 2:1-4) and the first to call him back to his throne after his son Absalom’s revolt (2Sam 19:11-15). Only the tribe of Judah remained loyal when the northern tribes seceded (1Kgs 12:16-17), and the psalmist marks secession as treason and grounds for God’s rejection of the northern tribes (Ps 78:68-72). In the exile, Daniel of the tribe of Judah becomes a model for correct behavior and faithfulness (Dan 1:6). As the fortunes of the Theocratic Israelite monarchy declined, the messianic vision held that the future was in the hands of a Davidic descendant within the tribe of of Judah who would restore the nation and its relationship with God (Isa 11:1, Mic 5:2).

Chosen by God to sit on the throne in the kingdom of God or God’s kingdom.  1 Chronicles 28:5

Physical Possession

“Royal Splendor”

“Royal Splendor such as no king over Israel ever had before”

David had a great name 1 Sam. 18:30, Solomon had a greater name, being king of kings and unmeasurably wise, yet Jesus Christ has a Greater Name above all other names for He is LORD of lords.  Solomon was to be a type of Christ.  Just the mention of his name, Solomon, people who loved Him were pleased, to hear the name of the greatest type of Christ alive was like perfume poured out.

name” She has a divine sense and relish of the heart, of the holy beauty and excellency of the person and work of God’s son the king of peace for his “name” was like perfume poured out.  The Holy Spirit of Love dwelling in her mind and heart gives her this sense. 8:6
His good name renders him amiable and is a motive and encouragement to love him for who he is and the kind of person he is like.

The people had a high view of their new Messiah, Solomon, the king of peace gifted with unmeasurable wisdom and we to also ought to have that high view of Solomon before he “grew old” 1 Kings 11:4 in order to a right view of Solomon.

Our highest and greatest affections or love must be exercised to those who are most worthy of them.

The sufficiency of Israel’s Messiah character to fulfill God’s purposes was greater than any other king before or after.  2 Chronicles 1:12 therefore wisdom and knowledge will be given you. And I will also give you wealth, possessions and honor, such as no king who was before you ever had and none after you will have.

holiness consists in having grace in the heart: grace and holiness are the same thing.


name”  Title Messiah, anointed one,  or Christ.  Purpose was to be a type of Jesus Christ.  The Song illustrates for us how the greatest type of Christ alive loved his bride and she reciprocates.  How a Messiah of Israel who was immeasurably one with God’s Son loved his bride.  Solomon possessed unmeasurable wisdom.  The Wisdom that guides Israel’s Messiah and king is on display in his union with his bride 2:15, 17.

Love desires the strictest union with the object of its affection.  Especially since his name was worth more than gold and silver for “name is like perfume poured out.” Solomon was most desirable to have as a husband due to the supreme excellency of his character and reputation.

Doctrine?  1 Kings 4:34 The proclamation of the excellencies of the king of peace and his love good will toward men drew men unto himself.  “his name was like perfume poured out no wonder the maidens loved him.”

Love to God consists in a delightful and affectionate sense of the divine perfections were ever they may find them.  She saw them in Solomon to the highest degree and loved him for who he was, what he did and stood for.  His “name” was like perfume poured out.

She desires this love from Solomon without fear because of who he was,  Solomon was one of Israel greatest promised messiah and there was no other greater husband to be desired,  he was “chief among ten thousand” Song 5:10 and was a “beloved above all others” Song 5:9  No waiting around here,  she says “Let us hurry..  Let the king take me into his chambers”  Swiftly she expresses her desire of union with the king of Israel who’s name is like perfume poured out, in marriage.   She intensely desires to be married to a type of Christ with a good name a sweet and pleasing name, like perfume poured out pleases us.

From the name of the king of peace to the Name of God, “His name was in the city Jerusalem.” 1 Kings 11:36

I Kings 4:31, 5:11

The Greatness and Holiness of God’s name made it praiseworthy.  Ps. 99:2

Name”  The Queen of Sheba recognized Solomon’s great “wisdom” and God’s “Eternal love” for Israel is why God gave them Solomon to be their king.  1 Kings 10:8-9

His name

His name is understood in the mind and delighted in by the heart and her will inclined to choose him all because she loves who he is, what he is like, what he will do and her relation to him currently as his servant and sister in the faith but desires the closest most intimate relationship in marriage with him.

There was going to be “no one like him”  before him nor after!!  1 Kings 3:12, Song 5:10  “No equal among kings”  The context of Song 1:2-4 is Solomon as a young child loving selfless king in Jerusalem.

“Name”  Jedidiah.  Beloved son of God.

“For he has rescued us from the dominion of darkness and brought us into the kingdom of the Son he loves.”

The union of the heart of a believer to Christ is begun when his heart is drawn to Christ, by the first discovery of divine excellency.

True love is immediate in the sense of being determined by the intrinsic nature of its object alone

This Love Song starts off with a request, a deep desire expressed in words.  She desires multiple shows of affection from God, through Solomon.   Kisses are shows of affection.  Solomon’s love is more delightful than wine.  Meaning more delightful than what most people consider to be delightful.  Most considered wine to be delightful around a wedding.  What is more delightful than the wine is being the bride experiencing God’s love in marriage to the greatest type of Christ alive and single.

Now to stir up your love for Christ, and this book will do it like no other.  Argue from Solomon to the Greater Christ.

The bride desired multiple show of intimate affection from Solomon because experiencing God’s love through Solomon was more delightful than wine.  Wine is physical and love is of the Spirit.  Spiritual delights are better than physical delights.  Experience more love from God through a mediator or experience more wine?  His/his love was more delightful than wine.

The sweeter the name the more powerful the attraction and desirability.

Application for the husband, wife or believer.

God’s idea of Himself or Name is manifested in and through Solomon’s roles, as king, priest, prophet, husband, friend.  Get an idea of the greatest type of Christ in Solomon then you get reflected and true idea’s of God.  Solomon was God’s representative on earth.

“Spiritual light han’t its seat only in the head, but mainly in the heart. It primarily consists in a sense of the excellency of divine things in the heart.”  JE

is like”  There is something similar about her knowledge of the king and his love to her that is similar to that of the king’s ointments being poured forth.  Thinking of the person and work of Israel’s current king and Messiah and sensing and knowing his love to her is like sensing or smelling the fragrance of the best perfume.  Do you know the smell of the ointments the king would be anointed with?   Just as you don’t know that smell a non believer does not know God’s love for they have not experienced God’s love of forgiveness through Jesus Christ.  They don’t know what it feels like to have a love relationship with God for they aren’t in one.

No king would ever bring about more peace in Israel and the surrounding Jewish Nations than the king to whom peace belongs would bring by his love to God guided by his unmeasurable wisdom.

Observe what it was that aroused his affections for her.  Remember we are in the arousal section of the Poem when they first meet and their affections are aroused for each other. Here we see that king Solomon was hearing a woman in love expressing her thoughts and feelings about his love which arouses his affections for her.  Solomon would not know the sincerity of her words but she probably didn’t give any indication that she was lying.  She wasn’t just saying this to impress him.  It was true and she knew his love was better than wine.  She knew his love to be better and of a more soul satisfying nature, therefore it would have been a holy true love in her heart for him.  Meaning that your average person wouldn’t know that God’s love through Solomon would satisfy the soul like she knew it would because they have not tasted the special love of God like she has because you have to have the same love in your heart in order to sense it and taste the “betterness”  if I may say so of it.  Not everyone has this holy flame in them.  This love comes from God, is something of God and has God as it’s primary object “for love is strong as death.”  Song 8:6  The love she had in her heart and the love he had in his was above human power to muster up.  Humans have no power over death.  No one is strong enough to stop death and neither is anyone strong enough to have an unquenchable and priceless love apart from God.    So not only does she have a superlative love in her heart and a sense of it that is subjective, but she also has a love of complacency in him due to his holy name, good reputation and character.  Holiness being the supreme excellency of his character, thus she has love in her heart as Edwards defines it.  “Love is the souls relish of the supreme excellency of the divine nature, inclining  the heart to choose
God as its chief good.”  JE  This love in her heart is what attracted him to her and made her morally beautiful in his eyes.

name”  Solomon’s name.  His reputation.  Officials wanted Solomon’s “name” to be “more famous” than David’s.  1:47

ointments poured out

ointments of an anointed king.  The anointed king, Solomon was the messiah of Israel.  The thought of an anointed unmeasurably wise messiah, God’s beloved son, the king of peace was pleasing to her,

“Anointing oil”  Wikipedia To express a divine influence or presence.

Due to a holy love being in her heart, her mind is fit for the sweet contemplation of holy character and name.

like perfume” “like ointments

“of all ointments that were amongst them, the holy anointing oil was the sweetest and had the most excellent fragrancy. This was compounded by God’s art, and not man’s. ‘Tis to this oil that the grace of charity is compared in the Psalms 133; with this oil there was none to be anointed but sacred officers that were eminent types of Jesus Christ. We read of the composition of it [in] Exodus 30:23–25″

“fragrance”  Rarely smelled.  Rarely used.  Special occasions.  The smell, for the true Jew in the promised land, would carry with it the idea of peace with God and rest for His people for a Messiah of Israel’s was here and you were close enough to Him to smell the ointments.

Though the context specifically talks of an anointed king, Solomon was also a priest and the anointing of the priest meant a time of love, joy, peace and unity Psalm 133:1-3   ointments, love, peace, unity, anointing

Song 1:3b

“Therefore”  Based on the information previously said the virgins love the anointed king” and rightly adore and desire to be one with him in love.

“the virgins love thee

She knows something about the king and his name that they do and realizes the obviousness of their love to him as their king.  Now maybe, I’m sure some of them wanted to marry him, but the text doesn’t say that.

Solomon was the most desirable single man alive.

Reverential love to their king as his servants.

The king of peace had the most amiable and desirable character,  He was also desirable to have as a king and husband due to his place in the plans and purposes of God.  She would be either wife to the messiah if she thought Solomon was the messiah or give birth to the messiah.

The basis for which all the single virgins desiring Solomon in marriage was because of his Christ like character ( in our language).  Though Solomon was a type of Christ, Solomon didn’t love his wife to the degree that Christ loved the Church, though Solomon in the Song of Songs is a superlative lover, a beloved above 10,000 other belevod’s 5:9 “chief among ten thousand” other husbands. His name.  The mention of his name was pleasing due to his holy love to God.  What single girl would not want to marry a good man of godly character.

The word “therefore”  is there because to the preceding information.  Solomon has a good name, therefore the virgins love him.  They love him as a king, brother, shepherd, leader etc. but they do not have lets say an “eros” love for him.  Erotic Biblical love is reserved for marriage.

Love of complacency and benevolence for their king of kings, due to his name and expressions of his love to them in his kingdom as his subjects is better than any other experience.

No wonder the maidens love you.”

These are other single virgin women who desire to be married to the king who’s name was like perfume poured out.   He was rightly desired by all of them for she says,  “how right they are to adore you.”  speaking of the king who was on her mind and desired in her heart.  He was irresistible.   His calling everyone to union and communion with himself was irresistible and effectual because of the excellent qualities of his nature and works which comprehended his “name”.

These maidens were everyone else but the bride.  They were servants or subjects in the Kingdom of God on earth.  God came to dwell with the king of peace who had unmeasurable wisdom and there was peace on earth and good will to many nations.  Through union and communion with one man blessing came to both Jew and Gentile.  Here the context still is the king of peace as “king” 1:4 sitting on God’s throne in Jerusalem as their messiah.  They had opportunity to be chosen for a more intimate relationship a closer uniting of both body and soul in marriage.  They were subjects or slaves and he was the king to whom peace belongs, God’s beloved son, Jedidiah.  Israel had the greatest king as far as wisdom, honor, riches and glory goes.

4.  Principle truths

Holy Love desires the strictest union with the object of its holy affection.

What is positional the soul wants practically.

Due to being united by God’s love the strictest union is earnestly desired.

Love desires to stand in the nearest relation to the being loved.

A flash of love, a strong and lively exercise of love excites a lively idea of the one we love.  Let “him” kiss me…

Love naturally inclines to a conformity to the beloved.  Well placed affection advances and improves the spirit into a conformity with the perfections which it loves.

Religious affections don’t lay satisfied at some level. Those who have tasted the Love of God through the greatest type of Christ alive will earnestly desire more and more of it.

Experiencing God love and Grace in Christ toward us in the worst of times is better than enjoying sin in the best of times for his/His for their love for each other is better than wine compare 1:2-3 with 4:10.  They have a mutual superlative delight in each other’s holy and beautiful love that has no mixture of evil in it.

5.  Application in marriage


“Love your wives as Christ loves the Church”  Christ first loves the church and the church reciprocates.  He gives himself to her.  He is faithful in His duties as our Husband so be faithful in yours.  The lover/Lover of our souls gives himself for the bride.

Husbands have you ever tried to fix something or put it together without the instruction manual and you couldn’t do it, then in despair you finally open the manual and start from the beginning and you find where you are lost and then figure out from the manual how to move forward.  Then you wished you would have went to the manual that is good for teaching, correcting and rebuking you in your work or labor of love.

The Song of Songs is a manual helping you to love your wife.  Imitate the wise loving king of peace and experience the love of God in your marriage that is better than any other experience and it only gets better.

Husbands out to seek a good name for it is more precious than diamonds, gold and silver.  Proverbs 22:1 “A good name is more desirable than great riches; to be esteemed is better than silver or gold.”  Since a good name is desirable more than great riches then every husband ought to seek a good name above great riches.  A husband with a good name like perfume poured out can be trusted to keep his promises.

And if you have been failing in keeping your marital promises to your wife then repent and look to Jesus Christ who has kept all His promises to you and be like Christ and love your wives as Christ loves the Church.  Forgive her as Christ has forgiven you.  Love her as Christ loves the Church.  Wash her soul with the Word of God.  Illustrated in Jesus washing the disciples feet is our need for daily washing.

Daily reading, Cross believing, love meditating on and delightful quick obeying of the Word of God no matter what difficulty we see in front of us.  Husband daily read your Bible with your wife.  Daily!!  It is her food.  It will refresh her soul, it will enlighten her eyes to see Jesus, who she loves above all.  In the Word at the Cross she gets a better understanding of God’s love for her so feed it to her soul daily to enflame her heart toward the Living God, her peace and rest.  Oh husband, seek to have your wife explain you like the bride did in Song 5:10-16

Almighty God pleads with you to have a good name for how could His glory be reflected in your marriage when your name stinks to the holy heavens rather than being like perfume poured out.  Repent and show greater love to your wife than before and never stop getting better at expressing your great love toward her.  And when you have a good name then go further, shine brighter, keep going, stay humble more than before, obey even quicker no matter what keeping your holy doves eyes on the one/One your heart loves.

Proverbs 3:3-5 Let love and faithfulness never leave you; bind them around your neck, write them on the tablet of your heart.Then you will win favor and a good name in the sight of God and man.Trust in the Lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding

6.  Application to the believer

Never stop asking Jesus Christ to reveal all the different ways He loved and continues to love you and will forever to your whole heart so that you reciprocate that love in greater delight in God, greater relishing of the Divine Nature inclining my heart more steadfast His direction as my Chief Good.  “Let Him show me his love over and over again because Your love is more delightful than wine.”  Never stop asking for this.  As soon as you see yourself stop asking then start begging again.  God show me your Glory!  Reveal your Son to me greater than before!  Let your goodness pass before me!  Show me your Face!  Let the light of the gospel of the glory of God shine in my heart!   May the love of Christ be shed abroad in my mind and heart over and over again because experiencing God love and Grace in Christ in the worst of times is better than enjoying sin in the best of times.  His love is better than wine.

Have you sensed and understood the love of God from your husband/Husband.  Ask God for more and more everyday and never stop desiring him/Him.  Think of Christ in His high priestly office for you.


“Draw me after you. Let us hurry.  The king has taken me into his chambers.”

Religious affections don’t lay satisfied at some level.  Once you taste God”s Love, you will desire more of it because experiencing God’s love through the most sufficient mediator is more delightful than getting it anywhere else.  He was the chief husband among ten thousand.  She desired to experience God’s love through Solomon.

JE will call “absolute” or “pure” benevolence in True Virtue: That disposition wherein true virtue originally consists is not exactly and fully expressed by the word BENEVOLENCE, which signifies a desire of the good welfare or happiness of others. It is better expressed by the words “love” or “charity,” or the Greek word αγαπη. “‘Tis a being’s being dear to us, which includes a desire of union with the object as well [as] a desire of the welfare of the object. Or rather, it is an union with the object; it is in the creature a kind of enlargement of the heart whereby self takes in existence in general. And these desires of sensible union and intercourse with the object, and desires of its good (the ordinary meaning of “benevolence”], may be considered as consequences and fruits of it”

Draw me after you.”

I love you. Draw me after you.  Let us hurry!

Take me away with you.

He draws her closer by loving her!  “The second object of a virtuous propensity of heart is benevolent being. A secondary ground of pure benevolence is virtuous benevolence itself in its object. When anyone under the influence of general benevolence sees another being possessed of the like general benevolence, this attaches his heart to him, and draws forth greater love to him, than merely his having existence: because so far as the being beloved has love to Being in general, so far his own being is, as it were, enlarged; extends to, and in some sort comprehends, Being in general: and therefore he that is governed by love to Being in general, must of necessity have complacence in him, and the greater degree of benevolence to him, as it were out of gratitude to him for his love to general existence,3 that his own heart is extended and united to, and so looks on its interest as its own. ‘Tis because his heart is thus united to Being in general, that he looks on a benevolent propensity to Being in general, wherever he sees it, as the beauty of the being in whom it is; an excellency that renders him worthy of esteem, complacence, and the greater good will.”  JE

If he could increase her hope then it would draw out “exercises of her love” to him .

“So love tends to hope. For a spirit of love is the spirit of a child. And the more one feels within himself this spirit of a child, the more natural it will be for him to look on God and go to God as his Father. This childlike spirit casts out the spirit of bondage or slavish fear. Romans 8:15, “Ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear, but ye have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.” The apostle John tells us that perfect love casts out fear. 1 John 4:18, “There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear.” And so again a true and gracious hope tends greatly to promote love. When a true Christian has most of a right hope of an interest in God’s favor, and those eternal blessings which are the fruits of it, this tends to draw forth the exercises of love, and oftentimes does so. Romans 5:3–5, “Tribulation worketh patience; and patience experience, and experience hope; and hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which is given unto us.”

Let us

?She is inviting us to go along side her in the relationship.  Be there with her as she tells us her thinking and feelings.?  “Listen my beloved..” Song 2:8  By being drawn into her character we imagine what it would be like to be her and experiencing God’s love through her suitor.

Here she invites anyone out there that would love to be one with Israel’s Messiah to join her to have union and communion with the king and shepherd of Israel with the hopes of the fullest most intimate union in love.

You can easily join her in her pursuit by imagining your the bride and meditating on the text from her perspective and therefore you can run with her as she desires to be as close to her king as possible.  Before marriage the closest she and all the other daughters of Jerusalem could get would be in proportion to how close they could get to God through His Word, the Law of Moses.   As shepherd he would guide them by his/His wisdom that he had as measureless as the sands of sea.  She gets to court Solomon and the other’s never get to overhear the most intimate conversations she had with Israel’s Messiah, but we know what they said and what she was thinking and feeling as he spoke sweetly to her in private.

“Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips, for your love is more delightful than wine.  Pleasing is the fragrance of your perfume, your name is like perfume poured out, no wonder the maidens love you.  Take me away with you….”Let us hurry.  Let the king take me into his chambers.”  Solomon’s Song of Songs 1:2-4

Hurry, run”  Ardency of affection.  Love waists no time.    “So time is the more to be prized by men, because an whole eternity depends upon it; and yet we have but a little of it.”

Let us hurry”  other translations “We will run after thee.”

“We will”  “Suppose that this has happened,”  Supposing the king has answered her request to “Draw her after him by his love”  Suppose the king did draw her after Himself by his irresistible holy love.  She both desires it to be and imagine what it would be like if it were true.  Let/He has brought me into his/His chambers.

The idea of suppose that her desire has been fulfilled.  Ponder the idea.  This gets us to meditate on the thought.  Sort of like an intentional pause to think about it or a “Selah”

The bride to be desires to experience God’s Love, His “Flame” through the king over and over again in marriage.  His name drew her to himself.  The mention of Solomon’s name drew her to him.  His godly “name” drew her to him.  She knew he was king of kings.  He would make a perfect husband, his rule over her would be most wise telling her only God’s will for her in life and marriage anytime she wanted it he was there for her and this love will be more delightful than wine.

What is their responsibility in the running after him?

The bride has the king on her heart and desires 4 things,  4 requests are born out her knowledge of who he was, his “name” and the experience of his love, it was “more delightful than wine”  She had tasted of God’s love for it was written on her heart.  Song 8:6 and she wanted more of it.  Now she deeply desires to experience God’s love through her king as she delightfully submits.

  1. She desire multiple kisses from the king on the lips (multiple shows of close affection) “Let him kiss me with the kisses of his lips”
  2. She desires to to taken away with the king.   She also say “Draw me after you.”  Let his name and the growing knowledge of it draw her closer to “him” the one her heart loved, the king of kings.  With urgency she says  “Take me away with you.”
  3. She desires to be taken away with the king in a hurry!  “Let us hurry”  No waiting around.  They are a perfect match.  Another way of saying it is “Draw me after you.”  Draw me to yourself by your love.
  4. She desires time alone and close intimacy with the king in his chambers!  This is true because she can’t kiss him in public. Song 7 “Let the king bring me into his chambers” or some translation have her brought to his chambers (The king has brought my thoughts and heart onto desiring union with him)  All are true.  She desires intimacy with the king of peace, He desires intimacy with her.  The feelings are mutual.

Your name is like perfume poured out.  God was drawing all people, shulamite, maidens, Israel and all the other nations to Himself through the person and work of His son.

Let the king take” vs.  “The king has taken”  either she wants him to take her to his chambers or the king in answer to her request to draw her to himself has taken her to his chambers, to a more private location where people are there praising his love and the daughters of Jerusalem are there as well.  Or they are still at the anointing and she wants him to take her to his chambers.  Certainly there was lots of praising Solomon that day as they left Gihon cheering 1 Kings 1:45.  I lean toward believing he took her back to his chamber.  She desired for him to take her away and based on her outer beauty which was obvious and her inner beauty of being pleased at the mention of his holy name she takes her with him back to his chambers and David is still alive.

Let the king take”  is quite similar to “Draw me after you”  for taking her into his chambers would be an act of drawing her closer.

Transition.  The bride to be has a king on her mind.   “let the king” take me into his chambers.  The kings name is like perfume poured out.  The people rejoiced and delighted in the kings love.  They will remember it more than any other experience.  for they say of Solomon’s and his love,

We will rejoice and delight in you, we will praise/remember your love more than wine.”

The character that the king sustained and his relation to God’s people recommend his excellencies to our esteem and love.

We”  Collectively.  Together they proclaim what they will do.  The body promises to rejoice, praise and delight in it’s head/leader/king.  This is a semi theme of the song.  Unity of the Israelites under their Messiah and king.

“We” “the union of praying (praising) Christians will be beautiful, he said, because unity itself is “amiable” and consistent with God’s plan for the creation.”  JE

Solomon would have more wealth, possessions, and “honor” than any other king before or after him.  2 Chronicles 1:12 Here Solomon is getting honor due to his love to God and His people.  The Lord made him “exceedingly great“. 2 Chronicles 1:1  And “royal splendor” beyond any other king.

Solomon’s reign was a time a great spiritual and physical blessings and peace was everywhere.  For all intense and purposes, there probably where quite of few people who thought Solomon was The messiah/Messiah.  He was a messiah, a very great one with unmeasurable wisdom.  Israel and all the ladies or daughters of Jerusalem benefited greatly.  They were getting their promised rest.  Solomon was their king, he loved them more than riches 1 Kings 4.   Solomon loved the people in his kingdom more than riches. God would give anything to Solomon and Solomon chose wisdom over gold.  God gave Solomon an unmeasurable amount of wisdom (Christ, the Wisdom of God).

Definition  “praise your love”  praise is a high esteem and the expression of it in words and actions.

Jer. 13:11  God bound Israel to himself in love for his “praise”   Praise Implies both 1. the high esteem and 2.  love of the heart.  1.  A high esteem in the mind manifested in exalting thoughts of God  2.  and complacence (satisfaction, delight) in his excellence and perfection or manifestations and effects thereof.

How precious is your unfailing love, O God” Psalm 36:7

How right they are to adore you

Still with the king on her mind.  The bride is in her thoughts and emotions.  Thinking about the king and expressing her feelings from her point of view.  King Solomon is not actually there in front of her when she says, “Let him kiss me…”  The king is out there.  They are separated, yet she desires a stricter union. in Song 1-4  and it ends with her making  a statement about those who are adoring Solomon and praising his love more than wine.  It is right that they adore the king.   It is not sinful for them to adore king Solomon, it is right!! Praise and adoration of the kings love is consistent with the situation.  Meaning that Solomons love is praiseworthy and fit to be delighted in more than wine.

1 John 3:7  “Little children, let no one deceive you. He who practices righteousness is righteous, just as He is righteous.”

Job 34:2-4  What job said the ear does she did here.  She heard the words, discerned and approved of what was holy and right.

If its right for them to adore him.  Then those adoring him are upright or doing a righteous act.   If the upright adore Solomon then it is still true that it was a morally excellent thing to do, to think highly of and adore.  The former is her having an approval or affection to what they are doing the other is a statement of fact as to what they are doing.  I doubt she is making a statement of fact saying “The upright adore you.” but rather is showing her love of complacency in what they are doing which reveals her inner beauty.   Which is why the holy king loved her as well for she had a delightful approval in her heart for what is right.  A love toward what is holy and right was dwelling in her heart.  A principal of love dwelt in her.

33 Sing for joy in the Lord, O you righteous ones;
Praise is becoming to the upright.


How right they are to adore you

The bride has not this deformity, that is more odious than mere dissent from being.  For a being to dessert from, or not to consent with, a being who consents with being is not beautiful but a deformity of being.  A rewording of Edwards.

1 John 4:12

Song 1:2 other translations, and cross references.

1:2-3  with Song 8:6-7

Strength of love illustrated.

Here see where his love has power to draw out her affections for him, for love has power to unite, to draw lovers closer.  The power of his love lies in its superlative delightfulness and has as its foundation his holy name.  The amiableness of his character draws out her affections for him.  The more amiable the nature the stronger the attraction.

Jealousy, fixed like those in hell can’t get out.  “fix your eyes on Jesus”.  Doves eyes are fixed.  A “seal” is fixed close and inseparable.  Set me… for my jealous feelings are fixed upon you.  Set me… for my jealous feelings can’t bear the thought of us being apart.

Once Jealousy starts it stayed fixed for it is a flame above all other’s due to it’s better nature.  It is spiritual.  Meaning it feeds the soul.  The soul is hungry.  The soul desires.  The soul desires to experience the Love of God.  The jealous or zealous soul will get what it desires.  We need only open our mouth wide enough and deny ourselves as we follow the good shepherd/Shepherd of our hearts.

Flame above all others.  Heat as fervor, vehemency and ardency, light as knowledge, light as delightfulness.

Song 1:4a

Take me away with you—let us hurry!”  “Draw me after you.”

The bride continues with her second request of the king of Israel sitting on the throne of God.  She desires him to take her away with him, quickly.  She doesn’t want to waist anytime in drawing near.  She not only wants him to take her away with him but to hurry in doing so.   Note the word “us”.   What she desires is for the two of them together to hurry and waist no time due to his godly character and  experience off his love that is more delightful than any other experience.

“as all things are from God as their first cause and fountain; so all things tend to him, and in their progress come nearer and nearer to him through all eternity”

The loveliness of the king draws out the affections of the bride to be.

Draw”  Jesus.  “There is much to Invite them to it there is not only nothing to Keep em from it but abundance to draw them to & indeed every thing that is Revealed to us of X the mediator & of the his Redemption t Invite to this all Conspire to draw us to such boldness & nearness of access & communion as has been spoken of. I would mention some things particularly 1. Let no degree of boldness in nearness can be beyond the Proportion of that Love & Condescention of his that he has Revealed to us”

We will run after you“: The idea is that the Daughters of Jerusalem – this on-looking chorus, who observe and celebrate the love between the maiden and the young man – they want to see what will happen as this wonderful love builds and takes its course. It is a good thing, and from their respectful distance they want to be part of it.

Let us hurry”  True love doesn’t want to wait around getting closer with someone of a good character.  The hotter the true fire of love the more earnest the desire to be closer.

Ezekiel 40:31. “And the going up to it had eight steps.”] See also Ezekiel 40:34and Ezekiel 40:37. The ascent into the outer court at each gate was by seven steps. (See Ezekiel 40:17, Ezekiel 40:22, and Ezekiel 40:26.) But the ascent into the inner court at each gate was by eight steps, to signify that the nearer God’s people approach, the more swift are the advances by which they make progress in holiness, get above the world, and approach to the heavenly state.

Later the shepherd/king compliments her swift pursuit of him by likening her to a mare in battle.


Draw me” by your most delightful and unquenchable love and name, let us run off together as one.  Draw me closer to yourself by your love.  He is on her mind and in her heart, both light of the knowledge of his name and experience of his love is the flame in her heart that is flashing like never before and is unquenchable and even the devils tempations to get her to fear death and doubt the love of God in the coming messiah and sense His Wrath, nothing couldn’t stop her love 8:6-7.

“Draw me”   Similar to how God brought or drew Israel to himself.  Ex. 19:4  You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself.”

Willing heart.  Not forced labor.

God is drawing His Son’s Bride closer to Himself by the same love they share for her.  Jer. 31:3

In every act of the will for, or towards something not present, the soul is in some degree inclined to that thing.  3:1-2  Love is inclined to the object of its affection.

Bride says, “Draw me after you.

“the virgin companions eagerly follow her”  and then “the King has brought her into his chambers”  has may often times mean ” suppose it to be so”  which leaves your mind wondering what’s going on in the chambers or halls.  1:4, 2:4, 1:17

Another way of saying it is awaken my love for you.  Draw me closer by your love.  Reveal yourself to me by me experiencing your love over and over again and I will be drawn closer to you.  As if she were to say to her type of Christ “Be like the coming Christ and I will be drawn closer to you.”

Transition from  “Draw me after you” to  “We will run.”  Love answers love as it relates to speed.   Both have ardent affection and are on fire.  Love is a flame above all other’s and when that flame is in the heart it desires the strictest union as fast as possible with the object of its affection.  The soul desires the beloved to draw it closer with ardent affection not wanting to waist time and since his heart is also set aflame for her in like manner he desires to speedily draw her closer.  So that she gets an immediate answer to her request of him.  We will run.  Since she is on fire and he is on fire why walk to his more private holy chambers?

Since his heart agree’s with hers, he has no reservations as to doing his part in answering her request.  They are one in regards to the goal, speed or celerity at the offset of the blossoming relationship.


We”  Something they are in agreement on.  We.  We will run.  Neither one of them wants to waste any time.  To  be wise but not waste time in the process of getting closer to his physically and spiritually.   They are both on the same page as to the speed of the union.  We will run.  Let us hurry.

We will run”  Since this is spoken after she says “Draw me after you.”  I take this as the king speaking.   The king in response to her earnest request is an earnest response, that satisfies her deep and intense desire to be taken away by him.  Plus the next verse has them in his chambers.  So the flow is she desires, he promises then promise is being fulfilled.

Her and him drawing closer to each other.  Her and everyone else getting closer to the king as close as a body of believers could get to their Messiah and king of peace.

Song 1:4C

The king has brought me into his chambers.”

Let the king bring me into his chambers

Is this a matter of fact that he brought her to his chambers or is this a request?  Is there a point that can be communicated either way?  Either way both wanted to be close and in a more private location for love desires the closest, most intimate and private relationship with the object of it’s affection.

Did she say all of Song 1:2 to 1:4B  out loud, then Solomon brought her to his chambers?

Is it important enough to come to absolute conclusions and have a literal historical account that young King Solomon 2900 years ago actually took a young woman to his chambers or that it was her desire but we don’t know if he did it or not?

The point is the privileged location and who would be there.  Either way they both would have been or wanted to be together in private as soon as possible.

She wants to go to his place not hers.

If she wants to be taken to his chambers then it would be quite easy to see all of Song 1:2-4 as not being spoken out loud but would be words expressing what was in her heart the day she saw and smelled Israel newly anointed young king.

We have five senses that can be used to help draw us closer. Touch, taste, sight, sound and smell. How should he touch her so that she gets closer to him? How should he look physically in order to draw her closer? What actions can she see him doing that will draw her closer? Taste. I suppose you would have to get creative with taste. Sound. What sounds can he make? What sweet words could he say? How could he smell in order to draw her closer? In the coming pages this love poem will reveal how they used all their senses for the good of the relationship for love affected every aspect of them.

She loves with a love of complacency and benevolence yet still desiring all form of love including an erotic love in the future.  Yet know she loves him with a love of complacency and benevolence as her new king.  She loved the king and wanted him to be in authority of her because of his unmeasurable wisdom and unquenchable love for God verses her family members or mother’s sons whom she wasn’t really related to.

This is a partial fulfillment of her request.  She isn’t as close as she would like but he has taken her away with him to his chambers.

She desired intimacy soon. “Take me away with you let us hurry!”  She also desired the closest of intimacy or union in marriage.  “into his chambers.”  He is perfect.  She is already concluded she wants the king to take her into his chambers, but it must be his desire as well.  This is why the word “Let” is used.  Also he is the king in Jerusalem.  Let his name and love draw her closer to him.  Let the knowledge of who he is and his love for me draw me closer.  For I desire the strictest union with the object of my holy affections.  Love, “The flame of the LORD”  Song 8:6  No one was more suitable to draw her to God then the unmeasurably wise king to whom peace belonged, who’s love was more delightful than any other experience and who’s name was like perfume poured out.  She desires the closest intimacy with the greatest type of Christ alive.  No wonder his love would be better than 10,000 other husbands.  Song 5:9-10

May”  The privilege of being able to enter the kings inner chambers was only by invitation like Esther, she couldn’t just walk in.

“king”  She would become co-hier to the Kingdom of God that had His son the king of peace ruling on His Throne in Jerusalem.  2 Chronicles 9:8


“He don’t force them, but sweetly inclines their wills to the most excellent things and to their own happiness. He overcomes them by his love; he governs them by infusing his love into them, and so inclining them to obedience. His dominion over his people is by mutual love and esteem.”

King”  2 Chronicles 9:8  “because of the love of God for Israel” God chose Solomon to be king over his/His bride to maintain justice and righteousness.

Kingship the blessing in the kingdom of God was expected.  They were expecting a king who would bring peace to all the nations.  Solomon’s name means king of peace.  Here he was, sound the trumpets, sing praises to the king of peace!!  Israels promised king to whom peace belongs.

The bride, the virgin maidens, all Israel and other gentile nations would be submitting to God when they submit to Solomon as king for Solomon ruled using the Torah, the first 5 books of the Bible.

king”  The idea of a king of Israel would of had lots of idea’s of a messiah of Israel and The Coming Messiah.

Chambers”  or Halls  “Banquet Hall” 2:4,  Entrance hall 1 Kings 7:19  Place where the king is being anointed and she can smell the sweet aroma of the anointing oil.

Joel 2:16

Chambers”  She clearly says that either she wants to be taken there or that she is there.  She doesn’t say what she wants in there except for him to kiss her there over and over again.  This is her desire.  Fulfillment of that desire is not in the text.  Even if he did bring her into his chambers there is no telling by the text this far what he is doing with her in his chambers.

chambers”  Moses Isserles (1520–1572) notes that the portable marriage canopy was widely adopted by Ashkenazi Jews (as a symbol of the chamber within which marriages originally took place) in the generation before he composed his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch

***2 Kings 9:1-3 The chamber is where Elisha told a prophet to go anoint Jehu in.  The prophet is told to take Jehu to a private place and he takes him to a house where no one else was but the prophet and Jehu.  Psalm 105:30

1 Kings 11:2 and 2 Kings 6:11  both have a context of being in a place that only God knows.  She desires to be kissed by him over and over again in a place where only they and God know.   “secret places”  Places where only the two meet.   Secret intimate time alone.

Ben–Hadad hid in a chamber.  1 Kings 20:32.

Solomon took 13 years to finish building his palace. He built a hall namedthe Forest of Lebanon. It was 150 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high. It had four rows of cedar pillars supporting cedar beams. The hall was covered with cedar above the side rooms, which were supported by 45 pillars (15 per row).  The windows were in three rows facing each other on opposite sides of the palace. All the doors and doorframes were square. There were three doors facing each other on opposite sides of the palace.

Solomon made the Hall of Pillars 75 feet long and 45 feet wide. In front of the hall was an entrance hall with pillars.

He made the Hall of Justice, where he sat on his throne and served as judge. The hall was covered with cedar from floor to ceiling.

His own private chambers were in a different location than the Hall of Justice, but they were similar in design. Solomon also built private quarters like this for his wife, Pharaoh’s daughter.

Smart woman.  All the women would have desired him because of who he was.  Because either Solomon is “The Messiah of Israel” and she would be marrying him.  Or she may be the mother of the coming Messiah, or at least he would be from her seed.  Gen. 3:15

Song 1:4c

We rejoice and delight in you we will praise your love more than wine.”


  1. Everyone but Solomon and his bride could be included in the “we”.
  2. The we could also be the any or all the virgins, maidens, unwed women, young women who were in 1:3b who desired to be married to the king of kings, Solomon as the daughters of Zion and daughters of Jerusalem
  3. Either way you look at it wether the “we” could easily be all of Israel, or the virgins only or the the angels in heaven.  I like to say the “we”  are all those who promise to praise the love of Solomon the king.  Seeing the “Flame of the LORD” at work in his role as king and God’s representative here on earth was delightful to experience.  God’s people were greatly loved therefore God gave them a great king.  2 Chronicles. 9:8.  God’s love in marriage is most delightful to behold and praiseworthy more than wine.  To have the love of God written on the heart and always existing there in a constant growing fashion.  Burning hotter, ever growing brighter.  Unquenchable and not even death could stop it.  8:6  So where we see love in a Godly marriage we are to delight in seeing a husband love his wife as Christ loves the church and praise their love more than wine!

We” These people had the same superlative love in them as the king and the born again slave girl.  These people rejoice and delight in the one who is loved because of his sweet name.  The mention of his name had an affect on these people that caused them to have a high affection called joy.  That joy and delight they have in their king is expressed in praise.  They highly value him and highly esteem his love so they promise to praise it more than wine.  These people have love to their king for who he is and what he is like.  That love that they have is the same love described in Song 8:6-7 that was of superhuman strength, It’s jealousy was supremely cruel. Their love was unquenchable a flame above all other flames and priceless.  So since love is all these things and these people had love in their heart then we can attribute the same love that was in the born again Gentile and the king was also in the people that rejoiced and delighted in the king and praised his love more than wine.

Worthiness of regard or praise consists in two things, greatness and moral goodness.  Solomon was worthy of honor more than any other king due to the greatness of his unmeasurable wisdom.

He receives value in our Eyes in proportion as we prove the Person that does it.

Beautifully do they love him.  Their love is fitting, right and proper.

The point still remains the same no matter how you look at it.  Holy love, love from the Lord doing its work in marriage is praiseworthy.  Love doing it work in marriage is of great value to both husband and Christ.  So valuable, delightful and praiseworthy is it that all who see it and delight in the holiness of it more than wine will resolve to praise it and remember it more than wine.

we”  all those who’s share in the partaking of the nature of God.  The love of God bonds them.  “We” as apposed to God’s enemies.  The enemy slaves did not rejoice and delight in the king of peace for they were not united to him in love.  They sinfully hated the king of kings sitting on God’s throne in Jerusalem and he and the Shulammite’s mother’s son’s were righteously angry with the enemies of the Kingdom of God.  Fellowship of the Spirit of God,  Communion of His Spirit of Love, common partaking of the Holy Ghost with other’s in the Kingdom of God.

Had the woman been sinful in her pursuit then her love would not be praiseworthy.  Her desire to be married to a Godly Man as soon as he is made known to her is praiseworthy and her desire to experience his love, which is God’s love through Solomon.  God used Solomon as an illustration of Christ’s love to His bride.  Love “the flame of the LORD”  is experienced through a mediator in marriage.  The husband is the mediator of God’s love to Christ’s bride which is also the husbands bride.  Seeing a husband love his wife as Christ loved the church is delightful to see and more praiseworthy than wine.

This love is something they have seen before.  God their King had set his love on Israel when they were His enemies.  By all outward appearance in the Song the woman is a natural born enemy of God yet get “the flame of the LORD” in her heart and desires to be married to Solomon, king of kings, sitting on the Throne of God in Jerusalem.   How is it possible for two enemies to be at peace with one another.  Solomon’s father was fighting to kill all God’s enemies.  Now Solomon was going to marry an enemy and give her himself and the promised land through their union.

We”  they are united in the same hand & are nearly Related one to another & have Communion one with another or the same spiritual Benefits and are one society & family Act. 10:34-35

Rejoice, delight, praise, exult, remember…”  “If we highly value the virtues and excellencies of a friend, in proportion as we do so, we shall approve of and like others’ esteem of them; and shall disapprove and dislike the contempt of them. If these virtues are truly valuable, they are worthy that we should thus approve others’ esteem, and disapprove their contempt of them. And the case is the same with respect to any being’s own qualities or attributes. If he highly esteems them, and greatly delights in them, he will naturally and necessarily love to see esteem of them in others, and dislike their disesteem. And if the attributes are worthy to be highly esteemed by the being who hath them, so is the esteem of them in others worthy to be proportionably approved and regarded.”  JE

“We rejoice”  They are not envious of Solomon’s exultation from being a son of David to being king but love in their hearts tends to mortify its principle and disposition in their hearts and disposes them to rejoice in his prosperity for love is not envious.

This is a praise of God’s love through Solomon to his/His people.  JE

“For as the nature of love, especially great love, causes him that loves to value the esteem of the person beloved: so, that God should take pleasure in the creature’s just love and esteem.”  JE

praise”  God also is fearful or terrible in praises, the wrath of God on his enemies through Solomon 1 Kings 9:20-23 and  His wrath is the substitutionary death of the lamb of God.  His holiness seen like never before in the temple in the holy of holies.  Ex. 15:11  Out of a Love to God Solomon punished the wicked by enslaving them.

Praise”  “High esteem and the expression of it in words.”  Not only high esteem but “joy in” the king and his love.

Praise=The high esteem and love of the heart, exalting thoughts of the king, and complacence (satisfaction and delight) in his excellence and perfection, mainly his holiness consisting in love to God.  The king’s holy love to the LORD was praiseworthy.

God is Love. a propensity in God to manifest His Nature.  A husband loving his wife and she reciprocates.

Song 1:4d

How right they are to adore you.”

The holiness of the maidens praise is the delight of the bride.  It was right for the holy maidens to adore, rejoice, delight, highly esteem and praise the Love of God’s son their king.

How right they are to adore him but they aren’t particularly adoring her because she looks like more of an enemy wolf than a friendly sheep.  She is a sheep and acts like one but looks like a wolf.

Praiseworthy.  A praise to the Godly person for the outward manifestation of their love to God is right and proper.

On account of his loveliness, she wishes well of him and delights in anyone else who rejoices and delight in the king who is worthy of praise because of the delightfulness of his love.  They delight in his holy love therefore they will remember, rejoice and delight in it more than wine.  His prayer for wisdom. His love to God in building the temple.  His love to God in bringing peace to all nations.  The kings love to God’s people in giving them rest and the enemies justly labored in the scorching sun.

If we highly value the virtues and excellencies of a friend, in proportion as we do so, we shall approve of and like others’ esteem of them; and shall disapprove and dislike the contempt of them. If these virtues are truly valuable, they are worthy that we should thus approve others’ esteem, and disapprove their contempt of them.

If he highly esteems them, and greatly delights in them, he will naturally and necessarily love to see esteem of them in others, and dislike their disesteem. And if the attributes are worthy to be highly esteemed by the being who hath them, so is the esteem of them in others worthy to be proportionably approved and regarded there is the same reason that he should be pleased with the proper love, esteem and honor of himself.

The bride witnesses the virgins or Israel delighting in Solomon’s love for her.   And see’s them praising his love, which is the “flame of the LORD” in him.  The bride to be then proclaims this truth about their adoration of Solomon.    “How right they are to adore you.”  The daughters of Jerusalem, virgins, David’s fighting men, all the officials, all Israel and surrounding nations that knew of Solomon adore him this is true.  But I believe in the context the virgins are the ones adoring Solomon.  It is right for a single godly woman to adore a single Godly man.  Their love or feelings for him were appropriate.  Holy affections in courtship arise from knowing the character of the husband.  Most ungodly women would run from a Godly man wanting to do marriage the way God intents.  Unsaved women have other plans other priorities.  But Godly women, women of virtue, thus called Virgins in Song 1:3b to have feelings for a man of godly character is right.  This should happen.  How right they were to adore Solomon.  Unmeasurable wisdom, loved Israel and not riches, king of peace 40 years, priest, prophet and on and on.  Solomon was the greatest type of Christ to have lived thus far and was single.  Rightly do they love him.  It is a good and holy feeling if the main reason for a woman desire for union with a man is because of his character.

Psalm 133:1

Their complacency was in each other’s holiness.

In Christ, in Solomon they have a union and communion with him in love.


Song 1:5-6

Speaker is the sunburnt slave girl.

Based on who she is, we then ask what is her darkness,  She says “I am dark..”  Physically from the sun because she was only spiritually dark before.  And she is obviously beautiful on the outside yet more beautiful on the inside with the Love of God on her heart.  Balanced thoughts and emotions keep the union strict. After a right view of the king she gives her testimony of a right view of herself and where the sunburn came from because she didn’t guard her vineyard like God wanted.

Now the Song changes context.  The fire of Love is still burning and keeps growing brighter all the way to 2:7.  Her love to God gives her reason to no fear His Wrath.  1 John 4:18.  She could say keep staring keep judging and treating me like a prostitute continuing in sin, but no she says “Do not stare at me…”  therefore she is worthy of the mare compliment in 1:9.  Meaning Solomon compliments her in 1:9 based on her fearless swift character illustrated in her pursuit of the king of peace and good shepherd who’s name was like perfume poured out.  She doesn’t fear the wrath of the king of peace because she has a loveliness about herself 8:6, thus making her beautiful not the inside 1:9 and out 1:10, so long as the king of peace can not judge her based on outward appearances all pointing to the fact that she is at enmity with God and his son who sits on His throne.  The bride to be starts talking to the daughters of Jerusalem.  She doesn’t want them to judge her an enemy of Solomon based only on appearances.  Her dark appearance carries with it the stigma that she was an enemy slave girl in the vineyards.  1 Kings 5:16; 9:20-23 with Song 1:5-7 and 2 Chronicles 8:7.  Not that she was just of low class but she was enslaved by Solomon himself when he became king after David died.  David was to destroy all the enemies of God, and Solomon but them to harsh slave labor.

Here she speaks to the daughters of Jerusalem.  The daughters of Jerusalem where women who grew up in Jerusalem during the 40 year reign of Solomon.  They did no work and were experiencing the rest God promised them.  The workers in the vineyards where the ones left over from David reign as king.   David was to destroy all God”s enemies in the promised land, but when Solomon, the king to whom peace belongs took over, instead of killing them he put them to hard labor.  So Solomon had his future wife in slave labor, she gets the flame of God in her heart 8:6 and desires to marry Solomon, king of Israel in Jerusalem, sitting on God’s throne 2 Chronicles 9:8.   The bride knows she is sunburnt, and was outside a covenant relationship with God but now is born again and there is no justification to “stare” at her anymore, speaks to the daughters of Jerusalem and says..

This is her first trial.  Trials are “those things that a professor meets with in his course, that especially render his continuance in his duty and faithfulness to God, difficult to nature.”  JE  The scorn, contempt and reproach of the daughters of Jerusalem didn’t hold her back from the pursuit of the one she loved.  They would think her unfit for a holy Messiah but she had a superlative holy love that did not delight in evil but rejoiced with the truth, in her heart.

She wants the daughters of Jerusalem to have a love of complacency or holy delight in her despite her outer appearance of being an enemy.   This love to her ought to be done “especially”  Gal. 6:10.  She is not a blood Jew but is of the same faith and love therefore Solomon calls her his sister many times in chapter 5.

Song 1:5-6

I am dark but lovely, O daughters of Jerusalem,
Like the tents of Kedar, Like the curtains of Solomon.


1:5 of herself, 2:14 of her face or form, 4:3 of her mouth, and finally in 6:14 Tirzah had it going on as well.  Beautiful, comely, fitting, suitable, lovely are all the same word in Hebrew.  She is also saying that she is “suitable“.  She is a suitable helper both physically and spiritually.  Suitable to reflect the beauty and glory of God like the holy tent curtains of Solomon were wonderfully set apart for the reflection of God’s moral beauty and holiness in the temple.  Contrasted to her sunburn that carries with it a stigma that she has a part of her that is like a dwelling place of evil.

We ask the question, “What is the point of comparison”  Her outer sunburn is being compared to tents of Kedar.   What is similar about her sunburn and a dark dwelling place of evil people.

Fit. Beautiful, lovely.  I am fit.  I am beautiful on the inside having general consent and agreement with God and others in my heart and words and actions to prove it.  It’s not so much that the word could be translated fit or lovely but that being fit is a prequalification to being lovely inside.  She is fit and suitable to be sealed to his heart and arm whereas a non believing Gentile would not be.

Her loveliness, suitableness or fitness for her purpose is beautiful like Solomon’s holy tent curtains.  Then we ask what is it about her that is lovely, suitable and fit for purpose?  Both her inner and outer beauty is lovey, suitable in all its relations and fit for its purpose.

Even if her loveliness is only external and she is the most beautiful woman then the external beauty of her body would reflect the moral beauty of God better than any other woman’s body.

Lovely, beautiful, Also carries the idea of being fit for her purpose.  Prov. 17:7  “is not fitting” NASB. “fitting”  See also Prov. 19:10 and 26:1

Dark am I, yet fit for my purpose both inside and out.  Fit to serve God’s purposes in His kingdom.  Therefore don’t judge me an enemy, for I come in peace having the Same Spirit and the same Love, same affection for the king, we ( the daughters of Jerusalem and I are one in purpose and she is fit for that purpose of Loving God with all her heart.)
“Do not stare at me because I am swarthy ,
For the sun has burned me.
My mother’s sons were angry with me;
They made me caretaker of the vineyards,
But I have not taken care of my own vineyard.


  1.  She is dark due to her sunburn.  She is not black by ethnicity.  Her being sun scorched helps to illustrate the amount of daily suffering she had in her bondage to her mother’s unloving sons.
  2. The imperative “Do not stare”  is plural and masculine therefore the king is implied as well as the daughters. (Song of Songs Hamilton page 45)
  3. Her mothers sons were angry with her
    1.  If her mother’s sons were Jews and she was a Gentile then this would be a righteous anger due to her rebellious behavior before God, she was a GENTILE enemy of God.
    2. If her mother’s sons were Gentile and her a Gentile then the anger would be sinful.
    3. The point may not be so much as to what kind of anger is directed towards her but that it is anger.  Whether righteous anger or unrighteous the reason they are angry was justified.  Meaning that she has done something to provoke them to anger.  She sinned by not taking care of her own vineyard.  Selfish laziness.
  4. The enemies of God did the slave labor under the scorching sun in the vineyards while the Israelites rested. 1 Kings 9:20-23  The Israelites had a grievous yoke ?  I Kings 12.   Adoniram was head of forced labor during David’s reign in the kingdom.  Yet she seems to be in forced labor from her family not the kingdom.  ?Was she ordered to labor by Adoniram through her mothers son’s?  Deut. 20:11  Those doing the slave labor under David where Cannonites.  The ones doing the slave labor later on in Solomon’s reign where Israelites that built the temple. “In order to accomplish the building of the temple, his palace, and the other government buildings, Solomon established twelve administrative districts throughout Israel. The purpose of these districts was to provide for the needs of the royal court (4:1-19), to raise taxes, and to coordinate the labor force needed to complete the building projects of his kingdom (5:13-18). 1 Kings 12 states that the labor was a “heavy yoke”. “Adoram was in charge of the forced labor” (2 Samuel 20:24)  The tribe of Issachar was also in slave labor there as well. Gen. 49:14-15 Judges 1:27-36  The point though is that she is being treated like someone continuing in sin and doesn’t want to be.
  5. The bride also compares her darkness to the “tents of Kedar” which were also dwelling places of God’s enemies representing remnants of her past life that may keep them apart. The people in those tents didn’t want “peace” but only “war.”  Psalm 120:5-7.  Her sunburn gives them the impression that she is not for peace but war.
  6. She was a slave and not a free woman.  She is in forced, or slave labor.  They made me.  This is forceful not willful labor in the hot sun.
  7. Having a sunburn in the time of Solomon’s reign carried with it a stigma that you were an enemy of God and the Israelites had a righteous hatred toward them.
  8. Being in slavery was a sign of God’s curse in your life.  Lev. 26:17 “I will set my face against you so that you will be defeated by your enemies; those who hate you will rule over you,”  Her mothers son’s hated her and didn’t love her and forced her to labor in the hot sun in their vineyards.  Her own vineyard she neglected.
  9. She is making a contrast between what is dark about her and what is lovely.
    1. The dark sunburn is an outward consequence of her old sinful life.  Her sin and her sunburn would be thought of as being connected.
    2. She compares her darkness to an evil dwelling place and her loveliness to the holy beautiful curtains of Solomon.   Therefore her darkness she is talking about is an unbecoming darkness like a place where evil dwelt.  The flame above all other’s in her heart, a holy love, beautiful, like the tent curtains of Solomon has power to cast out this darkness and replaces it with light and heat.
    3. Her flesh, body of death, unredeemed sinful part of her soul is not morally lovely but is a remnant of her old sinful life.  Meaning that she was dark only but now she is unlovely in part,  Dark am I, yet lovely.  She is positionally in the coming Christ, morally excellent, holy and lovely but practically there is much remaining sin, unbelief, selfishness and pride left in the heart.
  10. She is not all darkness, she does have a beautiful heart of love Song 8:6.  This is lovely about her as well and is what Solomon delight in about her more than wine. Song 4:10.  Her physical appearance was also lovely.
  11. She compares her darkness to “tents of kedar”  dark tents that had evil people dwelling in them.  She compares her loveliness to that of the holy beautiful curtains that Solomon had.  One tent used for evil another curtain for holy use.  There is a moral contrast being made.
  12. She deserved no “pity” as an enemy of God.   Deut. 7:2  but now with love they ought not to stare.
  13. Her sunburnt skin would indicate that she was not fit for a holy union, at least by outward appearance.  Even if she were not an enemy of God in literal slavery, her heart is to some degree. This we can’t deny,  we know that the woman in the Song was cursed when born being Adam’s descendant.  They had they roles all mixed up. It’s part of the curse for a man to not Biblically lead, it’s not natural to man.  Also it’s not in a woman’s natural born nature to lovingly submit to the leader of the union.  Their naturally is enmity.  The woman is cursed to lead and usurp her head/Head.  If she is saved she will do this less and less.  She will learn to show her love to God and husband by submitting without fear, and with ever increasing joyful celerity.  In her heart are remnants of sin, evil, pride, selfishness and unbelief.  Her flesh, the world and Satan are God’s, her husbands/Husbands and her enemies.  So even if she was not an enemy of God working in slavery in the vineyards, in her heart she still has some enmity against God and her husband until she earns her name, Shulamite, princess of peace by destroying in battle her flesh, the world and Satan, comes back, comes back from war and does a victory dance then she has high and wonderful thoughts of her husbands/Husbands love for her as he praises her from foot to head and then they enjoy the fruits of her self denial.  a purer heart and mutual holy communion in love. Song 6:12-7:9
  14. The sun “starred” down on her and she is asking the daughters to not “stare” at her.  Saying as if the sun didn’t love her but has been scorching her.  Please don’t do the same to me,  but love me and don’t stare.
  15. She is only spiritually dark by way of illustration.  So we know for sure she was sunburnt on the outside and before love entered her heart she was dark on the inside.  She is darkened by the sun due to her sinful neglect of her duties before God, for she “neglected her vineyard” and also was outside and not in fellowship with the shepherd kings friends.  She was being treated like someone continuing in sin or like a “veiled woman”.  Therefore if we were to ask “What is it about her that is dark?”  The direct meaning of the text is that she is dark with a sunburn, “darkened by the sun”.  But their starring at her is a wrong moral judgement on their part because she is not an enemy to the king but loves him with an unspeakable joy and peace that passed her understanding in her heart, for the fruit of the Spirits work in her heart is love, joy and peace.
    But dark due to her continuing in the sin of neglecting her vineyard.  So in this courtship we have a dark, sunburnt, Gentile, enemy of God and His kingdom, slave girl, hated by her mother’s sons.  Song 4 “My sister, my bride”  Clearly he means same spiritual family because Solomon wouldn’t marry a blood sister unless her husband died.  Therefore she wants to go from being in a cursed home to a blessed one. Proverbs 3:33
  16. “Dark am I, yet lovely”  serves as a good illustration of the doctrinal truths about who we are in Christ.  Her current situation of feeling like being treated for who she was but not who she is now.  Feeling like God hates us and is angry with us but He isn’t for He poured out all His anger on Jesus our Heavenly Bridegroom.  In our love relationship with Jesus Christ we are dark with remnants of a past sinful life, yet infinitely lovely in Christ.
  17. She was yoked to those who hated her and not wants to be yoked to those who love.  The king/King and his/His people.

Basically she is saying to the king and other’s “Please don’t judge me based on my sunburn but put on love, which is the perfect bond of unity.”  She is catching the fox of judgement and keeping a record of wrongs based on her outwards appearance.  Since it would be easy for them to judge her, that starring down upon her needs to be overcome by the power of love in order for her to be one with God’s Messiah and his people.


Despite the sunburn she is lovely on the outside.  She is also lovely on the inside, due to her love to God in heart.  The image of God in her is lovely due to her love to God. “because he infinitely values his own glory, consisting in the knowledge of himself, love to himself, and complacence and joy in himself; he therefore valued the image, communication or participation of these, in the creature.”

“Lovely”  Weather or not she knew it or not her righteousness was not credited to her.  Gen. 15:6.   Also true is that her and God are so united that their righteousness is the same.  The LORD, He is called Israel’s “righteousness”  Jer. 23:6, 33:14

Dark am I, yet lovely

Dark or the left over sunburn is a representation of the remnants of her past life that may keep her apart from the one she loves.

“by having a reflex or contemplative idea of what passes in our own minds I don’t mean consciousness only. There is a great difference between a man’s having a view of himself, reflex or contemplative idea of himself so as to delight in his own beauty or excellency, and a mere direct consciousness. Or if we mean by consciousness of what is in our own minds anything besides the mere simple existence in our minds of what is there, it is nothing but a power by reflection to view or contemplate what passes.”

LIGHT implies every essential excellence, especially wisdom, holiness, and happiness. DARKNESS implies all imperfection, and principally ignorance, sinfulness, and misery.

If so much of the beauty and excellency of Spirits consists in Love, then the deformity of evil spirits consists as much in hatred, malice and enmity.  Love in the heart.


‘Tis the tree of knowledge of good and evil, not only because thereby we came to know the difference between good and evil—for that properly is only the knowledge of evil to Adam, seeing he knew good before—but without doubt it was a tree of the knowledge of good properly, as much as evil. And the livelyperception of good so much depends on the knowledge of its contrary***, evil, that there was as much attained of new knowledge of good, as there was knowledge of evil; and this was the end of it principally, the knowledge of good. And by this means is our happiness advanced highly above what it was before the fall, and the promise of the devil, “Ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil” Genesis 3:5, is fulfilled in another sense and manner than he intended it should.

1:5 “Dark am I, yet lovely”

Reasons this darkness or loveliness of hers is not just physical or external but internal.

  1.  Her darkness is compared to an unholy dwelling place and her lovliness is compared to holy beautiful curtains in the temple.  Though there is something about her darkness that reminds her of evil and unholiness there is also something about her that reminds her of holiness, beauty and moral loveliness.

Dark am I,”    Love flashed in her heart and the light went on.  Knowledge of God in the face of His son illuminates her mind and she gets a clearer view of herself.  Light shone in the darkness as she drew near the light and her deeds were exposed.  The good and the bad.

Dark am I,   “tents of Kedar”

“Dark”  What makes a Gentile a Gentile?  Is it having a sunburn or is it having enmity in your heart toward God.  Is she a true Gentile now?   No,  she may look like one on the outside but on the inside she has the same mind and same love as a true Jew for they are one body with the same heart of love.

Yet lovely

I do not doubt that the bride is externally beautiful, but the context of the first 9 verses of the Song clearly indicate that she is talking about her inner loveliness her holiness of heart, love, the “Flame of the LORD” Song 8:6 in her.   Her love to God or holiness of heart is what is lovely in contrast to and the reason why the Daughters of Jerusalem should not stare at her in judgement because of her sunburn, but accept her as a holy sister despite outward physical appearances to the contrary.  If her dark sunburnt skin didn’t have a moral stigma attached to it then the bride would be only talking about her dark skin and outward beauty despite the working in the vineyards in hard slave labor.

Yet Lovely

‘Tis through the vital communications and indwelling of the Spirit, that the saints have all their light, life, holiness, beauty and joy in heaven…

She see’s and senses the love of God on her heart and knows she is lovely, valuable, worthy, beautiful, and morally excellent in the coming messiah.

She is dark and explains why she is dark.  Her darkness is the sunburn and everything that goes with it.  There was a stigma at the time that all sunburnt people were enemies of God.  You wouldn’t find a sunburnt Israelite because they were experiencing their peace and rest.  And she wanted to join them.

The whole reason she says “Do not stare at me..” is because of the fact that all sunburnt people during Solomon’s reign were enemies of God.  The Israelites where to not have any pity or mercy on them Dt. 7:2.  Her parents were righteously and utmost hated by Solomon’s father,David because they were enemies of God. Psalm 139:21-22  No holy complacency in them to delight in.  The enemies of God have no love to God in their heart.

The text seems to suggest that she had the same mother but not the same father as her mothers sons.

yet lovely”  tis the moral image of God in them, which is their beauty; and that is their holiness. Herein consists the beauty and brightness of the angels of heaven, that they are holy angels, and so not devils.

that knowledge which is the proper foundation of love, is the knowledge of loveliness. What that beauty or loveliness of divine things is, which is the proper and immediate object of a spiritual sense of mind, was showed under the last head insisted on, viz. that it is the beauty of their moral perfection. Therefore it is in the view or sense of this, that Spiritual understanding does more immediately

Yet lovely”  We must have high right thoughts of ourselves in Christ.  We are loveliest washed in his blood not lovely by our own good deeds.  We are lovely and highly exalted in Christ.  United to Him and because of Him and His Gracious Eternal Love to us.  Low thoughts of self are right in relation to our sin and darkness, but that’s not only us, for we are of the blood of the Highest Royalty.  There is such a union between God and man in Christ that due to that strict union, Christ who was
God in flesh and blood is united to us in the strictest sense physically as well as spiritually.  For we are flesh and blood.  He was King of kings and we are now kings of the highest rank, and co heirs to His Kingdom.  This is who we are in Christ, that if properly understood would promote godliness and more love to Christ and a stricter union and happier communion.  This lovely thought and thinking can lead to spiritual pride therefore the two must be balanced.

Balanced Emotions.

He is indeed a person of infinite majesty to fill our souls with the greatest reverence and adoration. But there is nothing in it that needs to terrify us. For his infinite majesty is joined with as it were infinite meekness, sweet condescension and humility. So that in the whole there is nothing terrifying or forbidding. There may be the utmost possible reverence and abasement and at the same time our hearts be drawn most sweetly and powerfully to the most free access, the most intimate embrace. When we view his greatness and majesty and other attributes, we are kept free from fear and flight by the view of his gentleness and humility. And when we view his marvelous love and abasement and are encouraged and comforted with that, we are kept from an indecent familiarity by the view of his infinite majesty. And by all together we are filled with most reverential love, humble boldness and familiarity, delightful adoration, and sweet surprise. The glory of Christ is properly, and in the highest sense, divine. He shines in all the brightness of glory that is the Deity, who is light, a luminary infinitely bright. Such is the exceeding brightness of this Sun of Righteousness, that the brightness of the natural sun is as darkness in comparison of it, yea, black as sackcloth of hair. And, therefore, when he shall appear in his glory, the brightness of the sun shall disappear as the brightness of the little stars do when the sun rises (Isaiah 24:23, Matthew 24:29, Revelation 6:12). But although his light is so bright and his beams go forth with infinite strength, yet as they proceed from Christ in the character of the Lamb of God and shine through hid meek and lowly humanity, they are infinitely gentle and mild, not dazzling and painful to our feeble eyes, but vivifying and healing, like smooth ointment or a gentle eye salve. Then the Sun of Righteousness arises on them that fear God’s name with healing in his wings, i.e. in his bream (Malachi 4:2). It is like the light of the morning, as a morning without clouds; as the dew on the grass, under whose influence the souls of the people are as the tender grass, springing out of the earth by clear shining after rain. Thus are the beams of his beauty and brightness fitted for the support of the healing and reviving of the afficted. He heals the broken in spirit and bindeth up their wounds.”

“Rejoice with Trembling”

Lovely “Like tent curtains of Solomon”  Since she uses a holy simile for her loveliness and an evil dwelling place for her darkness, I take it that she is speaking about her moral loveliness or fitness for acceptance by them and for they to not stare in judgement.  Love is not censorious.

Make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen, with cherubim woven into it by a skilled worker.

“of Solomon”  Holy, Beautiful, no enmity with God dwells there but peace and reconciliation.

Daughters of Jerusalem

These are non sunburnt women who grew up in Jerusalem during the time of peace.  They did no work outside and were experiencing their peace and rest.

do not stare

Better translated “Fear me not, because I am very dark, Because the sun hath scorched me, The sons of my mother were angry with me, They made me keeper of the vineyards, My vineyard — my own — I have not kept.”

The daughters make a 180 turn.  They go from staring at her to helping her when they are reminded of the kind of beloved and friend her husband was.  This is the beginning of their hearts being united under their king/King.

We see how often the apostles exhort visible Christians to exercise this affection to all other members of the visible church of Christ, and how often they speak of the members of the visible church as actually thus united, in places already mentioned. In 2 Corinthians 9:14 the Apostle speaks of the members of other churches loving the members of the church of Corinth, with this peculiar endearment and oneness of heart, for the grace of God in them. “And by their prayer for you, which long after you, for the exceeding grace of God in you.” The word, translated “long after,” is επιποϑουτων; which properly signifies to love with an exceeding and dear love. And this is represented as the bond, that unites all the members of the visible church: Acts 4:32 “And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and one soul.” This is the same thing which elsewhere is called being of one mind: 1 Peter 3:8, “Finally, be ye all of one mind.” And being of the same mind: 1 Corinthians 1:10, “That ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind.” And being of the same mind: Philippians 4:2, “I beseech Euodios, and beseech Syntiche, that they be of the same mind in the Lord.” And being like-minded (the word is the same in the Greek), Romans 15:5-6 “Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be like-minded one towards another; that ye may with one mind, and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ”: there is reason to think, that it is this oneness of mind, or being of one heart and soul, [which] is meant by that charity which the Apostle calls “the bond of perfectness,” Colossians 3:14. And represents as the bond of union between all the members of the body, in Ephesians 4:15-16, “But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ; from whom the whole body fitly joined together, and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying itself in love.”

“Fear me not”

How is it possible for them to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace and at the same time think she is an enemy of God?  She must be accepted as a sister in the coming Christ in order for there to be peace and not enmity between them.  By all outward appearances she looks like a Gentile enemy due to her sunburn and past enslavement.

How is it possible for them to accept her into God’s kingdom?  What right does she have to be accepted?  Song 8:6 gives us the answer.  She had love, a vehement holy jealous love in her heart.  And love comes from God and is something of God.  She had God and His love dwelling in her putting her heart on fire for Him, Israel’s Messiah and His people!

Essentially she is saying,  Accept me into your fellowship.  Don’t judge me by outward appearances of looking like an enemy.  May I be one with you as I love you as myself.  Like Jonathan loved David but woman to woman.  “Jonathan became one in spirit with David, and he loved him as himself.”


my Mothers sons

She is in slavery by her mothers sons and not her original father.  Her spiritual husband is Satan.   Her enslavement is just.  The children of Zion righteously hate her because she is an enemy to the throne of God and His kingdom 2 Chronicles 9:8 here on earth.

The point being made is that of ownership and her miserable condition and non desirable union with her mother’s sons, she wants out of it.

They are to not stare at her even though she deserved staring but now she is starting to do her God given duties or outward manifestations of her love to God by taking care of her vineyard.  She will have a blossoming one, and then a full garden later.

“Mother” can be used in the sense of birthing.  Her mother at the time of Song 1:6 would be Jerusalem.  She would be a daughter of Jerusalem because it was their witness of the coming messiah that she believed in and therefore had a right to enter into the Kingdom of God.

In a physical sense it is her mother’s sons who had her in slavery.  People not directly blood related, ?children of a different father had her in slavery.?   The Israelites put her to slave labor.

No true familial relationship between with the ones who put her into slave labor in the hot sun.

(I’m wondering in what sense she could be a daughter of Zion?)  at this time she is probably a daughter of Jerusalem but not an original, she is like an adopted daughter therefore a sister into the family of God beside the flocks of God’s good shepherd and not being treated like someone who continues in sin.

They are righteously angry at her.  They have no love of complacency in her.  She was not holy and beautiful she was an enemy of God until she was born again.  8:6 and Ez. 36:26

The bride to be doesn’t want the smooth skinned not sunburnt daughters of Jerusalem to  stare at her dark sunburn that gave them the impression that she was an enemy of God.  She did not want to be judged by outward appearances, but by an inward reality that she had a new heart Ez. 36:26 and that now though dark with remnants of an old sinful life still around, she is also lovely.  Holiness of heart and her love to God is what is most lovely about her.  Her inner beauty of a renewed image of God upon the heart.  The image of God is Christ.  The greater the brides knowledge of Solomon grew the greater idea she had of Christ.  Solomon was a lesser Christ but the greatest type of Christ living at the time.   Dark was she but lovely.   Certainly she was talking about the bad stigma that having a sunburn had during Solomon’s reign when she said she was dark for the following verses is her testimony as to how she got the scorched skin.  She was a slave in the vineyard by her mothers sons.  By brothers of a different father.

She didn’t take care of her vineyard.   Had she taken care of it or guarded it properly then she would not be in slavery.  She knew she was supposed to be a good steward of what God has for her in her life.  It was her duty to take care of the vineyards.  God would want her to take care of the things she had in her possession.

Is she in slave labor by Solomon?  Was she an Israelite that neglected her vineyard got put in slave labor cuz she couldn’t catch the foxes that ruined the vineyard.

She was enslaved by those who hated her. To not stare at her would be to look at her without hatred in their heart.  David hated those who hated God and who worshiped idols.  Ps. 31:6

“My mother’s sons were angry with me.”  This would have been at the end of David’s reign and before Solomon’s first anointing and would have continued on until Solomon allowed her to find peace and rest from the noon day sun beside him by the shepherd tents.  Song 1:7-8


“And as it [is] necessary that there should be evil, because the glory of God could not but be imperfect and incomplete without it, so it is necessary in order to the happiness of the creature, in order to the completeness of that communication of God for which he made the world; because the creature’s happiness consists in the knowledge of God and the sense of his love, and if the knowledge of him be imperfect, the happiness must be proportionably imperfect. And the happiness would also be imperfect upon another account; for as we have said, the sense of good is comparatively dull and flat without the knowledge of evil.”

made me

Gal. 4:31.  Her mother’s sons enslaved her.  She was not a child of the promise.  She gets rebirthed by her new mother Jerusalem.

slavery and forced labor.

Slave, Fear, Bondage, Love casts out fear.  Edwards

“Dark”  2 Chronicles 8:8

For more on the daughters of Jerusalem. Go here.

Song 1:6

Do not stare at me because I am swarthy, For the sun has burned me.”

Do not stare”  and lily among thorns

She is asking for their enmity against her to end.  She is starting to live out her name as princess of peace.

Their staring is a moral judgment upon her due to the stigma of having a sunburn meant that you weren’t a good nor holy person with love in your heart.  So to gain their acceptance she says yes,  “I am sunburnt and look as if there is evil dwelling in me, yet since I am morally fit to be united to a holy Messiah, I am lovely.”

We have the same love, faith etc.

“Do not stare”  Their staring is implicit or not intentional based on all the facts.  Their implicit attitude and feelings toward her is to stare or look down upon her due to the associations at the time with having a sunburn.

Whether they believe it or not she is their “sister”  see note on 4:9.

A steady intent look with despise or contempt due to her evil nature evident by her sunburn and vocation as a slave.

She is not the princess of peace until 7:13.  Meaning that their is still enmity in the hearts of those just born again.  This remnant of enmity in the hearts of new believers causes disunity and not unity, disharmony and not harmony and peace within a society or kingdom.

Let me be treated by you not as “a Gentile” who continues in sin.  Mathew 18:15-17.

the sun”  *Isaiah 49:8-10 And Rev. 7:16

sunburnt”  “burned”  By all outward appearance of a sunburn and her enslavement she was an enemy of God, under the wrath of God, others had a righteous anger toward her, no love of complacency, she was not a sister but an enemy.  But there was a moral loveliness about her that made her a sister and morally excellent, it is the love of God in her 8:6.

Darkened under the sun“.     This is a good outward illustration of the inward reality of a heart apart from God (under the sun) that only gets darker and more hardened.

sun has burned me”  “scorched

     Psalm 68:6″  God sets the lonely in families, he leads out the prisoners with singing; but the rebellious live in a sun-scorched land.”

What might a daughter of Jerusalem have in her mind and heart when looking upon a sunscorched enemy of God, give her testimony?

They rightly had a righteous anger for she was an enemy of God but now she is not just dark only but she says “Dark am I, yet lovely” judgmental thoughts

She was a daughter without a father.  Or her father was not there yoked to her.  She was yoked to her mothers sons.   Sons of a different father.   Yoked in slavery.

She has clear and right ideas about herself and who she is asking to “not stare at her” “look down upon her“.  “I am dark, yet lovely” she says in 1:5  she is talking to the daughters of Jerusalem who never had anyone judge them.  They were daughter of the holiest city, Jerusalem, on earth with God dwelling with man.   So you have the holy daughters of Jerusalem listening to a sunburnt dark enemy of God give her testimony as to why they should not treat her as an enemy.  She had Love to God, the “very flame of the LORD” in her heart  Song 8:6.  Yes dark and swarthy on the outside, and yes I look like an enemy by all outward appearances but I am lovely on the inside.  So ““Do not stare at me because I am swarthy , For the sun has burned me.

Young’s Literal Translation
Fear me not, because I am very dark, Because the sun hath scorched me, The sons of my mother were angry with me, They made me keeper of the vineyards, My vineyard — my own — I have not kept.” Its like she is the evil and bad girl but has feelings for the good and just cop. Or its like she is Hitler’s daughter wanting to marry and get close to a holy king of Israel. Or like a woman that has an upside down tattoo of a cross on her arm that says “Death to Jesus” and she wants to marry a righteous and holy pastor. She looks like a wolf on the outside but is a sheep on the inside.

No need for righteous hatred, no need to look down upon me, and have anger towards me

It is so, I am beside your flock of friends, but I want to be where you shepherd your flock and have rest there.  She desperately doesn’t want to be in slavery and desires freedom and rest where the good shepherd feeds his flock.

There is a contrast being made that is important.  I don’t think her point is to explain how or if neglecting her own vineyard led to slavery but the contrast of being in slavery to not is being made and that of being hated now and not before had she kept her vineyard from foxes.  I doubt she was a rebellious daughter of Jerusalem because “everyone was under their own fig tree”  plus all the enemies did all the labor outside in the sun.  1 Kings 9:20-23

Song 1:6  Jewish Translation

“Do not view me with contempt despite my swarthiness, for it is but the sun, which has glared upon me.  The alien children of my mother were incensed with me and made me keeper of the vineyard idols, but the vineyard of my own God I did not keep.”

Though I disagree with most of the translation the idea that the starring here is a type of contempt.  Moral contempt.  Yes, I am sunburn and I know it, please don’t treat me that way, for I am lovely.  She has the love of God written on her heart Ez. 36:26 There fore look not down upon me with Contempt, I am not your enemy anymore, but we are friends, “companions”  but now Im being treated like an enemy of God, continuing in sin like a prostitute who has to cover herself with a veil in shame

Do not stare at me because I am swarthy,
For the sun has burned me.
My mother’s sons were angry with me;
They made me caretaker of the vineyards,
But I have not taken care of my own vineyard.”
This is to be read and understood in the order it is written.  So first the slavery then her not taking care of her own vineyard.   Not thinking she didn’t take care of her vineyard so her mother’s sons got angry and made her take care of their vineyards.  Rather they didn’t love her and manifested their anger towards her by keeping her bond to serve them in slavery in the scorching sun.  Since she was enslaved she could not take care of her own vineyard.  Said with deep sorrow and repentance.   Proven true repentance because her own vineyard started blossoming. 2:14.

Made me

We felt like we really didn’t like her but felt a burning hatred towards her so we put her to slave labor in our vineyards.  Imagine laboring in someone else’s vineyard for their benefit and not your own.  How miserable a life that would be!  You would clearly know they hated you.  You were bond to them as a slave, laboring in the hot sun getting sunburnt because those who have you there hate you.  Would you feel loved by them?  Of course not.  You would not feel love in that private context apart from any standing in God’s special grace because even a slave can be laboring in someone else’s vineyard and it be love from God in the form of discipline for He disciplines those He Loves.  So I say private context similar to how Solomon uses the phrase “Under the sun”  Meaning apart from God.  Or Under the Sun, taking out anything higher or greater than the sun or world.  So apart from God the world seems meaningless.  Under the sun everything is meaningless.  Her life was meaningless under the sun.

She is being treated as a pagan not guarding what God wanted her to guard.  “treat them as you would a pagan or a tax collector.”  Matt. 18:17

What is true is that they have her laboring in the hot sun for them.  It ought not to be and she doesn’t want to be judged.  The slavery is no longer justified.  Due to her love to the king, agreement and fellowship of heart she has with those who love the holy king because his character, name and reputation is pleasing to them.  And her testimony of being “dark, yet lovely” due to the Love of God in her heart is evidence enough that they ought not to stare at her and accept her into their fellowship, peace and rest as their friend and not enemy.

?Blood Jew being treated like a Gentile enemy due to her lack of guarding her heart, thus she doesn’t guard her vineyard and is in slavery sunburnt working for someone else’s benefit.?  Love breaks the bond of slavery to another’s vineyard and restores union with God through his son and king thus her vineyard will bloom.  The cultivation of love and humility in her heart will blossom.

The point here isn’t so much who is forcing her to work in their vineyards.  Jews or Gentiles but the fact that she is owned or yoked to them.  She must be freed to leave and cleave.  Her actions are tied to doing their will and working their vineyards and not her own.

Made me take care of the vineyards”   Slavery.  She is enslaved not experiencing rest.

She needs freedom or redemption as a slave.

‘Now if a man lies carnally with a woman who is a slave acquired for another man, but who has in no way been redeemed nor given her freedom,

The point is the contrast between who’s vineyard has she been working in.  And who’s vineyard is/was she in?  She was doing nothing in regards to anything her duties and responsibilities before God.  Her vineyard.  Her own vineyard.  The one God gave her and she was supposed to take care or guard it.  God gave her a vineyard and she had obligation to guard her own vineyard, but she did not guard it.  She was continually in sin, not guarding her vineyard, but working slave labor for another.

Who would be righteously angry with her for not obeying God?  Who would be sinfully angry with her for not taking care of her own vineyard?

Vineyards could be used for a garden of herbs.  End of Song 4 with 1:6 with 1 Kings 21:2 And Ahab spake unto Naboth, saying, Give me thy vineyard, that I may have it for a garden of herbs, because it is near unto my house.

“I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt so that you would no longer be slaves to the Egyptians; I broke the bars of your yoke and enabled you to walk with heads held high.”

Jerm. 2:14   A servant born into the family had rights and honors next to the sons.  Gen. 15:3

Exodus 22:5  “If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man’s field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.”  Could she now owe restitution by a form of stealing from the fruitful vineyards of another.

Romans 7:4  “you also died to the law through the body of Christ, that you might belong to another, to him who was raised from the dead, in order that we might bear fruit for God.”  Under the law she deserved to be in slavery.

?Is she a slave girl born into the family of Pharaoh who was supposed to take care of Gezer but it was put aflame and since she neglected her vineyard she is now enslaved by her mother’s sons.

?Her mothers sons weren’t her current spiritual relatives?   Her mother’s sons weren’t her desired family members.  The idea is that of slavery and ownership.   She is owned and enslaved by a family relation.

For more on “Do not stare..”

1:5-6  with Isaiah 54:1

my own vineyard I have neglected”  “not guarded”

The point.  Wether you interpret her vineyard as he physical body in it being sunburnt, her vineyard as being her losing her virginity and being an adulterous or her vineyard as her own vineyard that grows grapes.  The point is that all these at the base foundational idea is that they all are duties before God.  Even her complexion could have been sinfully neglected.  So when taking it broadly she has “neglected a God given duty in life.”  Which means she is confessing her sin to the daughters of Jerusalem.  What duties have you neglected?

The Song is about love, unity, oneness and peace.  A sinful life, neglecting you God given duties shows you do not love God, are not one with His people but living in enmity against both.  But being truly sorrowful as you confess you sins shows your love to God and gives reason to be accepted and untied to His holy family which includes the daughters of Jerusalem.

She has committed Spiritual Adultery over and over again.

Admission of guilt.  Confession.  Where she went wrong revealing inner heart darkness, yet she is lovely 1:5.

1:7 to 2:6  is unbroken holy sweet communion between the lovers that ends with the strictest union thus far when she is passed out, overwhelmed by the kiss or expressions of  his/His love to her.

1:7-2:7  or 2:3-6 or just 2:3 Is a scene under the apple tree.  Were she arouses him. (?This may or may not be the full scene if somehow they are literally under firs and under an apple tree at the same time,  it seems more likely that she is just referring back to a time when she roused him by saying “take me to the banquet hall” unless under the apple tree is where God’s love roused Solomon and ravished his heart.?


Song of Songs 1:7

Tell me, O you whom my soul loves,
Where do you pasture your flock,
Where do you make it lie down at noon?
For why should I be like one who veils herself
Beside the flocks of your companions?

From living a metaphoric hell on earth to literally living in love, joy and peace in God’s kingdom on earth.

She is his side, she properly belongs there, here she is most happy.  By his/His side and in his/His presence is where she is most holy, happy and beautiful.  By his/His side is where she finds her peace and rest.  By his side and in his/His shade 2:3.

Tell me

In order to know what she is thinking and feeling you must know who she is and think that that is who you are.   Imagine you are a woman desiring to be married to Israel’s Messiah, king and shepherd of God’s people.  You are sunburnt, tired and desire rest.  Your current being in control over you hates you and there is absolutely not real satisfaction in your life, mostly misery and life is meaningless.  You here of someone who, because of his name, who he is, who he represents and what he will do you are drawn to him. Your heart desires the closest most intimate relationship with him as possible, yet by all outward appearances you are an enemy of God, deserving His Wrath and not His Love, Grace like the Israelites as they are blessed with closer and closer levels of intimacy with God through union and communion in love with the coming Messiah and he is God’s son on His throne in Jerusalem, He is about 12 years old and gifted with unmeasurable wisdom.  While still not accepted into his/His kingdom and being treated like a prostitute who continues in sin, you desire to be shepherded by the king and therefore experience the peace with God and man and keep the bond of peace through love, you look to the one you have the most affection for and eagerly ask,

tell me” “to you

This is a request.  A request to you whom my soul loves.  Like a love letter but verbal.

She asks and then he answers.  She doesn’t know something.  She doesn’t know where to find rest from the noon day sun that was scorching her darkening her skin.  She was sunburnt in slave labor because she was an enemy of God and now she desperately desires to be set free, but is ignorant as to where to go to find rest for she was laboring and heavy burdened.

Tell me you whom my soul loves”  Clearly she loved the king in 1:2-4  but the words the “one whom my soul loves” are used so that we get it in our minds that she is talking to the one she loves.  Israel’s Messiah, king Solomon.

She had in him in her mind at his anointing when she first had that feeling.  She knew she loved him and addressed him as “you whom my soul loves.”  Her soul, her innermost being felt something for the first time, true love for Israel’s Messiah, young Solomon when he was anointed and now she is in his chambers and wants to know where he works in the middle of the day so she can be near him and out of the sun so she can rest from her bondage to her mother’s sons.  She wants to be unbound.  Redeemed.  She is owned by another and essentially she wants Israel’s Messiah to redeem her from slave labor in someone else’s vineyard.

She was sun scorched because she was in bondage to her mother’s son’s working their vineyard, not her own.  Imagine what it would be like to be forced to work in someone else’s vineyard for their profit and not your own in the heat of the day everyday.

She urgently desires to be in the same pasture that the Messiah pastures his flock during the hottest part of the day.  And she looks like a Gentile!  What business does a Gentile have being able to experience God’s peace and rest in His kingdom.  They should only rightly receive justice in the form of righteous anger and wrath toward God’s enemies.

tell me “you” whom my soul loves.  She is talking to a shepherd and clearly the one she loves is the king back in 1:2-4, and for him to be the most desirable man alive I highly doubt the one she loves is just an ordinary shepherd boy.

My soul loves.”

This feeling she had was true.  Her soul loved the king as her king.  So this is a love of a king to his subject and a subject of the kingdom to her king.  She was now a true Jew in heart due to love being there in it.  So he is the whom whom her soul loves as a king.  And now he is someone whom she loves as a friend and not an enemy because he is the king of peace.  He is someone whom she loves as a shepherd.  He is someone she loves as a hopeful future husband, but so far this is the first date.

It’s important to know the difference between loves.  The passionate erotic love of a married man and woman must not be aroused or awakened until marriage.  So her relationship with him is not so close.  They are bonded by love and have the same love in their hearts, the love of God.  This they share in common.  It is no ordinary love.

This love that is strong as death is in her.   This love that has a jealousy that burns hot as the fire of hell.

“The body of man is no more capable of being really the subject of love or hatred, joy or sorrow, fear or hope, than the body of a tree, or than the same body of man is capable of thinking or understanding.  As it is the soul only that has ideas, so it is the soul only that is pleased, or displeased with its ideas.  As it is the soul only that thinks, so it is the soul only that loves…”  JE  RA

“Where” and “Where”  Clearly she is wanting to be somewhere.  Where the Messiah pastures his sheep.  She wants to be out of the sun feeding her goats in peace and rest like the Israelites were.

It does seem like she is chasing him, yet in reality it is who he is and the experience of his love that irresistibly calls her closer.  Song 1:2-4  Her faith and trust in him is precious and praiseworthy!

She followed the tracks of the sheep and would up at their dwelling place in 1:17, she was enemy, bound in miserable slavery, both physical and spiritual, getting scorched in the hot sun and now she has the love of God in her heart and is changed and desires to be where the one her heart loves is and gets rest during the hottest part of the day.  She was outside a covenant relationship with God and It was so but she didn’t want it to be.  She ought not to be treated like a prostitute continuing in sin, but desire to be experiencing the promised rest with God’s people for she was not jus dark on the outside and inside but she was dark on the outside yet lovely with the love of God on her heart 8:6 and lovely on the outside if only he could overlook the stigma of being an enemy of God, that came with being a sunburnt slave during Solomon’s reign. 1 Kings 9:20-23 with Song 1:6

***She desires to join his fellowship,

“a slavish sp.,  a spirit of bondage, tends to Keep a distance but that spirit of a Child (companion, friend) tends to freedom & nearness of access.”

She is to prove her love to and union with him/Him by holding holy communion with him.  Which means he is king with a sweet name above all other names and in order to hold holy communion with him in love you must

  1.  Obey him/Him.  Learn his will for you and obey without hesitation for he is your “king”.  The thoughts and feelings must be mutual.

She desires peace and rest at “his” side the one her heart loves.  Again her husband the one she loves is on her mind.  See the repeat “you”and “your”.

you” whom…”you” pasture…” your” flock “you” make….”Your” companions

She desires to be in union with him as the shepherd of her heart, indicated by her asking the one her soul loves a question.  Love desires the strictest union with the object of its affection and here she delights to have him give her truth and she delights to receive it from the one her heart loves.

She wants  peace and rest from slave labor and she can find it next to the one her heart loves.  Note the emphasis on “you” and “your” in the above verses.

He pastures his flock among the lilies”  2:16

A wife is to get advice from her husband.   Especially  when the one her heart loves has unmeasurable wisdom, who else would she go to?

oh you whom my soul loves

This is a request spoken to the one her heart loves, king Solomon.  Solomon responds in 1:8.  Notice the context change, this is very important in order to understand the text.   In Song 1:5-6 the bride was talking to the daughters of Jerusalem.  Now in 1:7 she speaks to the one her heart loves.  The king is the one her heart loves 1:2-4  who is also a shepherd 1:8 and 6:3.  Love desires the strictest union with the object of its affection.  She is uniting herself to Solomon as a shepherd.  She is asking him for advice and he is giving it like a good shepherd.  Solomon had unmeasured wisdom 1 kings 4:23 and his answers were sweet to her taste Song 5:13.

“My soul loves”   “If I say love seeks the object loved, I mean the soul loving; if I say love delights in the object, I mean the soul loving, or in the exercise of love”

These are words expressing her deep desire to be at peace and rest near Solomon, out of the sun.  Out of slavery. v6   where she won’t be looked down upon or treated like someone continuing in sin like a prostitute outside the blessings of a covenantal relationship with God walking around veiled so as to not get stared at.  She is born again Song 8:6 because Gods Love is in her heart Ez. 36:26.

Ever felt something and knew it but couldn’t but it to words.  Like have you felt distant from God, desired to be near, but didn’t know where to go but had reason to believe that it is only because Jesus is God’s Son and Christ’s work on the cross that I can draw near?

Where you graze your flock..”  Who has a flock?  Solomon was the greatest shepherd ever he had “more herds and flocks than anyone in Jerusalem before him.”  Ecclesiastes 2:7

“Pasture”  “shepherd” Solomon was a shepherd of animal sheep and God’s people.  Song 1:8 with Ecc. 2:7.

Since Solomon was king of Israel he would also be a shepherd of God’s people which would include the woman he was courting.  Iron sharpening iron.

“you whom she loves” is the anointed king who is also a shepherd.  The text here says that the one she loves is a shepherd who has flocks.  Solomon is the king whom she loves and he has flocks of sheep more than anyone in Jerusalem before him.  Solomon was the greatest shepherd of animal sheep.

“where you”  “when we speak of the powers or principles of acting, as doing such things, we mean that the agents which have these powers of acting, do them, in the exercise of those powers. So when we say, valor fights courageously, we mean, the man who is under the influence of valor fights courageously. When we say, love seeks the object loved, we mean, the person loving seeks that object.”

Application of her God

She desires information from her good shepherd and calls him the one she loves.  Her husband is the one she loves.  The one in authority over she calls “the one she loves”.  He is her beloved, the one she loves.  Isaiah also uses the same language similar to the bride here when singing when he sang a song to God.  Isaiah 5:1  “the One I love”  “my Loved One”

This is the context the bride is in.

Now the bride is talking to the one she loves and asks him a question in Song 1:7 and Solomon answers in Song 1:8  Solomon was represented as king in Song 1:4 and now he takes the role of a shepherd Ecc. 2:7 with Song 1:8 clearly revealing that the one she loves is not only the wisest king of kings but a good shepherd leading to peace and rest.

She wants to know

  1.  “Where”  Where the one she loves pastures his flock.  Where does king Solomon pasture his flocks? Ecclesiastes 2:7
  2. She wants to be in fellowship with him and his friends.  Well she has got to be at peace with God.

Where”  She wants to be where the one her heart loves shepherds his flock.

She also believes she has some right to be within the flocks of the good shepherd’s companions, for what right does a slave girl have to be resting when the promised rest was only for God’s people/sheep.  She was a slave girl and ought to be in slave labor not enjoying peace and rest in God’s kingdom.  Yes, she was an enemy slave girl at one point of her life but by now with her holy love to Solomon and desire for him to be her king illustrates that she is no enemy to the throne of God but submissive to His king, Solomon.  No true enemy of Solomon would sincerely swear faithfulness loyalty to him, unless they knew who he was and what his love could do for their spiritual good and God’s glory.   Solomon was the king of peace.  He made peace with his enemies.  Surely he could make peace with his wife once she has the “Flame of God” Song 8:6 in her heart.

Where do you lead and provide rest for your flocks during the scorching noonday sun?  Not only did she have duties to guard her mother’s sons vineyards, but also she was a shepherdess, she had “young goats” that the good shepherd said could find peace with God and rest from her forced labor by the shepherd tents.  Here you  have 3 new duties of the wife or bride to be.

  1. She is to be submissive to her wise king and good shepherd.
  2. She has duties of her own that must be taken care of.  She is the caretaker of her own vineyard.  She listens to no other husband but her own.
  3. She is also a shepherdess,  she has “young goats”

1:7-8***  “Where you graze your flock

At this point we know that Solomon was king and that the bride desired union and communion with the king whom she loved and now she is asking the one she loves a for a location where he may be at a certain time.  At this point we would conclude that the king of peace had a flock and he grazed it in a shady, not sun scorching place.  The one she loves who is the king 1:2-4 is also a shepherd who knows where to find peace and rest from experiencing the wrath of God under the sun.  Close to him and following his advice would bring her peace and rest.  She wants to be near him and he desires for her to be near him so he lets her know.  The king of peace was the greatest shepherd in Jerusalem thus far.  Eccl. 2:7

“We are allowed to Come with all that bold boldn su freedom & nearness of access that Love desires Love [ ] seeks or Desires . Love desires Liberty of access to the beloved [L. 7r.] & Love desires full Liberty it is Impatient with any thing that tends to prevent Liberty”

She is committing herself to him to have him shepherd her heart.

“your flock”  clearly she has “young goats” or kids and he has a flock and he is giving her advice therefore he is a shepherd of her hearts and a shepherd of physical sheep.  This verse makes makes it clear that Solomon was a king of kings and a shepherd of the hearts of those that loved him and desired to be near him.  Solomon was the best shepherd of hearts and also a shepherd and in his later years he was the greatest shepherd so far of

He is answering her request in Song 1:4  “Draw me after you.”  King Solomon is being a shepherd of her heart by giving her advice wise advice and she follows him wherever he goes.  She found the shepherd she loves with a love of complacency and benevolence yet still desiring an erotic love in the future.


why should I be as one that turneth aside by the flocks of thy companions

Why? She knows it is true but she doesn’t want it to be so and it ought not to be that she is being treated like someone continuing in sin.

It’s like she needs his permission to no longer be in slavery and not accepted into his sweet fellowship.   She is told where to go and his mouth was sweetness itself.

Ephesians 3:12
“In Him and through faith in Him we may enter God’s presence with boldness and confidence.”    A “mare” is bold in battle and so is the woman.  She see’s no legitimate reason for her to be separated from him and is bold in her request to be near him and out of slavery.

She clearly has spiritual understanding, wisdom, hatred for sin and desire for a holy life.

Job 28:28
“And unto man he said, Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; and to depart from evil is understanding.”

Proverbs 9:10
“The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom: and the knowledge of the holy is understanding.”

why”  It is true, but it  shouldn’t be because she has the love of God in her heart.  Also the promises of peace and rest where only for “God’s people.” “God’s people will be established in the land and not disturbed.  No more traveling or fighting. No more affliction from the wicked.”  2 Sam 7:10

She was no longer an enemy of God’s kingdom, continuing in sin like a veiled shameful woman, she was a born again child of God.


She veils herself so that others don’t stare at her sunburn or remaining remnants of a past evil life in slave labor for she was an enemy of God and was being treated like a prostitute Gen. 38:14-15***

veiled woman”   She is being treated as if she were an evil Gentile prostitute in slavery.” Why should i go around being treated as if Im a woman continuing in sin?  That’s no me anymore for I love.”

Ruth wore a shawl into the city.  A unmarried woman.  Ruth 3:15.

She is like Ruth and Rahab, who would be treated like outcasts.  Not in a covenant relationship with God.

Like a woman continuing in sin.

It is so, that she is being treated like a sinner, unbeliever and Gentile but she now has a love in her heart that is above her own power to muster up.

beside” not in fellowship.  Eph. 2:12.   She was “alienated” from a life of peace and rest in the kingdom of God.

Beside” goes with her “among” the maidens in 2:2.   It’s a trial and they are thorns due to her being a Gentile and they were Jews.  She was a slave and they were free.  Uncircumcised and Circumcised.   So that the metaphor of a lily among thorns is my darling among maidens and “flocks of his friends”.

Religiously speaking her and Solomon where at polar opposites which could never come together unless they be in agreement and at peace with each other.

She hides her face in shame like a prostitute would be outside kingdom blessings.  She was not in Solomon’s circle of companions. But desired it to be so.  By all outward appearances, her sunburn and all it would look as if she was being treated like a prostitute but wasn’t one.   “For why should I be like..” be like a veiled woman outside God’s covenantal blessings to Israel.  It is so, she was in slave labor because she was an enemy to God’s kingdom and king.

companions” or “friends”  Masculine and plural.

Same word used in 8:13

Once she had friendship with the world but now she desires friendship and a common bond with the shepherds companions showing also that she desires friendship with God

But there is an inclination in the creature, not only to the  adoration of a lord and sovereign, but to complacence in someone as a friend, to love and delight in someone that may be conversed with as a companion.

Birds of a feather flock together.

Psalm 119:63 “I am a friend to all who fear you, to all who follow your precepts.


She wants to be near him and he answers her most sweetly acknowledging he wants her to be near him.  She drew near to him and he drew near to her.

The proper evidence of having a heart actually to forsake all, is indeed actually to forsake all, so far as called to it. If a prince makes suit to a woman in a far country, that she would forsake her own people, and father’s house, and come to him, to be his bride; the proper evidence of the compliance of her heart with the king’s suit, is her actually forsaking her own people, and father’s house, and coming to him. By this, her compliance with the king’s suit, is made perfect. JE


Song 1:8  

If you yourself do not know, Most beautiful among women,
Go forth on the trail of the flock And pasture your young goats
By the tents of the shepherds.

The citron or apple tree is bearing fruit that is sweet to her taste. Later on in 2:3 she compares him to an apple tree among the tree’s of the forest.  She asks something of him and he answers the words from his lips are the fruit of his heart.  His sweet words were to her taste or liking like fruit from an apple tree.  This is the first time Solomon, the one her heart loves speaks in the Song and it is in answer to her question.  Their first sweet and holy communion or conversation.

She was desperate for the information and had a deep desire to be near him and experience peace with God and man and rest for her soul.  But did not know where.  He is answering her question.  This is the first time the king of peace, the one her heart loves speaks sweetness to her ears and her precious ears take it all in and it is like refreshing shade on a hot day, sweet to her taste 2:3.  Surely Solomon noticed her earnest desire for she fearlessly obeyed and proved her love to him and he praises her in 1:9.  He was casting pearls and her listening ears were also precious to the wise king of peace for he said,   “As an earring of gold, and an ornament of fine gold, so is a wise counsel to an obedient ear.”  Proverbs 25:12

Wisdom has a goal in mind.  Oneness.  Her good because he loves her.  What shall I say that would bring about a closer union between shepherd and follower?  What would I say that would help move the relationship closer?

Clearly they don’t rest their flocks in the same place in the hottest time of the day.

If you do not know,”  Some people think that the couple is married from Song 1:4 yet here she doesn’t even know where he rests his sheep in the heat of the day.  If they are married at this time you would think that she would know were he fed his flock.

“Hear it and know it for yourself” Job 5:27

Her lover is the king and a physical shepherd and a spiritual shepherd.  He is her spiritual shepherd because he gives her mind advice.   He shepherds her heart and she shepherds her young goats.

Here is his first sweet words to her.

Now the one her heart loves is shepherding her heart.  Her mind.  By giving her mind information.  Much needed information.  The sweetest information to her ears 5:16.  She is ready to leave father and mother and be one with the king of peace.  Its almost as if she is obeying  Psalm 45:10-11 Listen, daughter, and pay careful attention: Forget your people and your father’s house. 11 Let the king be enthralled by your beauty; honor him, for he is your lord.”  She honored him by obeying.  She followed and as they go together side by side he praises her inner beauty in 1:9 and outer beauty in 1:10 and their isn’t any other woman in the world more beautiful for she is the “most beautiful of woman”

The king, shepherd, the one her heart loves answers the bride’s inquiry about where to go and what to do to find peace and rest from her hard labor under the sun.  All along the bride is pursing Solomon swiftly as she desired in Song 1:4 “let us hurry”.  She is not waisting time because his “name” was pleasing to her,  “like perfume poured out” Song 1:3 plus she is not fearful of the wrath of Solomon due to him being the king of peace, for by Solomon’s undying love to his enemy bride become one due to Love the “flame of God” Song 8:6 being in and on their hearts.

1:8-9  It looks they went together following the tracks of the sheep.  Here is her first lesson on leaning to lean on her beloved.  Particularly in a heart shepherding context.

**Is. 40:11, Jer. 31:10

If you do not know

The shepherdess is clueless, she does not know how to get what she wants.  But she does know who to ask.  She asks the one her heart loves.  She desired to know where to find rest and peace from her slavery in the hot sun.  He answered her with sweet words reminder her that even though she did not know she was still the “most beautiful among women”.   In truth and in his eyes she was the “most beautiful among women”.  The love Song that stands above all other loves Songs has as its bride, “the most beautiful among women.”  This is superlative language.  This superlative love Song has for its bride “the most beautiful woman”.   As far as beauty went, she was “the most beautiful.”  Her own ignorance of what to do as shepherdess did not keep him from her.  He helps her out by reminding her of what He thinks of her.


He beauty is compared to things that are out of this world in 6:10.

?It seems that Solomon has respect to her love being greater than the other maidens due to the lack of fear of punishment.  She has more reason to fear punishment to to her sunburn and the stigma of being an enemy of God that goes with it.?  most certainly there is a pure, ardent, even inconceivably vehement mutual love “between the glorified saints; and this love is in proportion to the perfection and amiableness of the object loved.”

“He who has been forgiven little loves little.”  Luke 7:47  She has been forgiven much and loves much and has the greatest “enlargement” of heart to love. Ps. 119:32

most beautiful

Inside and out.  Like a mare in battle or sandaled feet of a queen of queens.

Beauty is the ultimate qualification or excellency of the bride.


He gave her an honest answer which is like a kiss from his lips. Proverbs 24:26 with Song 1:2

He see’s her and notices her unparalleled moral and natural beauty.

His attraction to her has nothing to do with her sunburn.  She is the most beautiful woman despite her sunburn.  He accepts her as she is and doesn’t hold into account the remnants of a past sinful life.  He sunburn was a remnant of her past sinful life.

She is literally “the most beautiful woman” outside physically.  She is also infinitely beautiful in the eyes of God due to her union with the Son of God before the world began.

Get an idea of either the moral or external beauty of the bride and you get an idea of God.   Beauty is that “wherein the truest idea of divinity does consist.” (Religious Affections) God Himself is distinguished most from His creation by virtue of His beauty: “God is God, and distinguished from all other beings, and exalted above them, chiefly by his divine beauty.”

Gen. 12:13Please say that you are my sister, so that I will be treated well for your sake, and on account of you my life will be spared.” 14So when Abram entered Egypt, the Egyptians saw that the woman was very beautiful.”     “Very”  is the same word used of Abishag, who was very beautiful.  Yet Abishag unlike Sarah was unsurpassed in beauty in all of Israel.  If Abishag is not Solomon’s wife, then the woman in the Song was not living in Israel or the search only included Israelites and not foreign women within Israel.

Solomon is not just saying she is the most beautiful because he loves her but because she actually is the most beautiful woman.  The way he describes her in chapter 4 is that she is “flawless” and also “altogether lovely”.   Superlative beauty is common in Scripture

Prov. 11:22  You can’t call a woman truly beautiful unless she has discretion.  Intellectual discernment.  Intellectual judgement.  Answer based on sound judgment.

He mentions her matchless beauty and the first words of Solomon to his bride to be are that she is “the most beautiful woman of all”.   I take Solomon at his word and if he says she is the most beautiful then she was.   So line up all the beautiful women and Solomon uses his shepherding skills to lead her closer to him by letting her know who she was in his eyes.  She was the most beautiful!!  Not just a nice compliment but a statement of actual fact.

HAPPINESS. How soon do earthly lovers come to an end of their discoveries of each other’s beauty; how soon do they see all that is to be seen! Are they united as near as ’tis possible, and have communion as intimate as possible? how soon do they come to the most endearing expressions of love that ’tis possible to give, so that no new ways can be invented, given or received. And how happy is that love, in which there is an eternal progress in all these things; wherein new beauties are continually discovered, and more and more loveliness, and in which we shall forever increase in beauty ourselves; where we shall be made capable of finding out and giving, and shall receive, more and more endearing expressions of love forever: our union will become more close, and communion more intimate.


Beauty is that wherein the truest idea of divinity does consist.  We get an idea of God by understanding and delighting in the beauty of the Bride by beholding God’s beauty reflected in her outward appearance and actions.

“My darling” in 1:9, 1:15, 2:2, 2:10, 2:13, 4:1, 4:7, 5:2, 6:4.  “Friend or companion”

Fairest among women.

She has no reason to be ashamed of the remnants of her dark past because he is completely attracter to her because she is “the most beautiful woman”  Her beauty draws him closer to him.  Overall he is adoring and delighting to behold her form and character in action, like a mare in battle.

“most beautiful of women”  What she has that attracts him to her is her beauty her matchless beauty.

She also had a beautiful heart that consisted in her consent to being in General.

follow”  or go forth.

Here we see a spiritual and physical shepherd of goats in love with and asking for advice from a Spiritual and physical shepherd of sheep.  She was one of God’s people and he is now shepherding her and she shows her desire to be near him both physically and spiritually by the fact that she “loved” him from the vehement “flame of love” she had in her heart.  The Love of the LORD causes her to desire to be shepherded and get advice from one of Israels Greatest physical and spiritual shepherd/Shepherd.  Ecc. 2:7, Psalm 23,

He admits her into a stricter union with himself to build a stronger bond, spend some time together.

The good shepherd of her heart tells he to “follow”.  Follow were he has lead his sheep before and where and when the sun can’t scorch her.  Here we have an example of the bride submitting to her christ, good shepherd and king, as is her role in the union.  The pattern the wife in the marriage is to follow is that of how the bride of Christ submits to Christ.  Ephesian 5:24

Peace and harmony among past enemies.  How is it possible that the king whom she loves commands and she delights to eagerly follow.  Where it not for the Love of God that was in her heart she would not take advice from her shepherd.  By her asking and him answering he is being her shepherd.

She expresses her hearts desire in 1:7, He tells her how to get it in 1:8 and She gets her hearts desire in 1:17  for they clearly she went from being treated like a gentile sinner to being treated like a virgin queen united to Israel’s Messiah in Love.  She desired to be out of the scorching sun and now she has luxurious rafters over her head and she is dwelling there with the good shepherd king of her thoughts and dreams.

“Follow”  He tells her what to do rather than saying “Your a sunburnt slave you don’t deserve rest from forced labor, get back to work or I whip you with scorpions.”

She asks out of love so he knows she is sincere in her desire to know where he shepherds his flock  so that she can find rest there beside him rather than far from him in slavery under the scorching noon day sun.  She is to follow in the tracks of the sheep that follow the good shepherd and she will find rest in the shade of good shepherds.

Follow… and rest..”  Wether she followed immediately or not is not known, what we do know is that she earnestly desired to be near him and find peace with God and others and rest.  So her flame was a fire.  Unquenchable, Strong Jealousy, can’t buy it.  Oneness will happen, a stricter union will be achieved one way or another.  We do know that she did find her resting place dwelling with him under a sure luxurious foundation for the “The place they lie down on is green and the beams of their house were cedars and it’s rafters were furs.”  Solomon’s Song of Songs 1:17    She went from being sunburnt and being treated like a prostitute outside a covenant relationship with God to delightfully sharing a sure and luxurious dwelling place where she was at perfect peace and rest.

Joy or delight in God is compared to beautiful adornments worn by Israel.  God compared the joy of the return of the Children of Israel to Zion after its restoration, to the beauty of a bride’s wearing of ornaments of jewels (Isaiah 49:18)

This would mean that his eyes would always be on her.  She was the most beautiful, why would his eyes wonder off a woman that was more beautiful than all the rest.

She desired to be within the flocks of his companions Song 1:7  and here in 1:8 the flock of companions left a trail.  She desired to be with them and he gave her command and leadership and she listened and obeyed quickly and fearlessly.  Not under law but under grace.  The first most important thing she needs to know in this courtship is that she is “the most beautiful woman of all”  She probably knew it, but Solomon proclaimed her “the most beautiful woman”  Nothing is more beautiful than a repentant bride a continually humbled bride.

Definition= peace= that peace with God that is sensible is that inward, holy calm and quietness.

Follow” All his commands are agreeable and acceptable. He accounts Christ’s yoke easy, and his burden light, and his commands not grievous.  we esteem the ways of his commands “ways of pleasantness.”

She knew she had a loveliness about herself in Song 1:5  “Dark am I, yet lovely”  though there was an evil moral stigma attached to her outward appearance that was her darkness and was not lovely, but the was a loveliness about her.  Solomon is not an ignorant unwise shepherd of Israel and sheep but he was fully equipped to fulfill or do his role as shepherd and she saw it due to her confession of love to Israel’s king and shepherd.

She desires to be near the one she loves and cries out t

She already has spiritual peace and rest due to her love to God 8:6, what she desires now is the physical slavery to end and for her to be excepted into his friendship by the flocks of his companions or friends.

“rest”  Rest is the happiness of the soul and the soul will not rest but in satisfaction.  She will be satisfied when she is near him during the hottest part of the day.


Admire the wisdom and skill he has to calm her fears and draw her closer by letting him know how he see’s her as “the most beautiful woman”.  She didn’t doubt him judging her by the outward appearance of being an enemy because his “love was delightful” and his “name” was pleasing to her.  He drew her closer by His love and good reputation, name and faithfulness.  Due to his love and faithfulness to her her life of sin is denied for a closer more intimate relationship with Israel’s shepherd/Shepherd.

She proved her words “you whom I love”  by her desire to be Shepherded by him and desire to be near him.  Love here being that of a sheep to her shepherd/Shepherd.

Numb. 27:16-18  Saul, leader, “shepherd of Israel”

Behold the beauty of God in both the physical and spiritual aspects of your wife.  “It is with regard to His image or resemblance , which secondary beauty has of true spiritual beauty, that God has so constituted nature, that the presenting of this inferior beauty, especially in those kinds of it which have the greatest resemblance of the primary beauty, as the harmony of sounds, the beauties of nature and of a woman, have a tendency to assist those whose hearts are under the influence of a virtuous temper, to dispose them to the exercise of divine love, and enliven in them a sense of spiritual beauty!!”

“Get thee forth”  “Follow”  “Follow the tracks of the sheep”

“shepherd” was a metaphor for the king in ancient middle east. (Curtis page 122)

“follow”  The tracks may be fresh.  Sheep go back and forth.  If only tracks were they then they would lead from open pasture to a shady, cooler place out the sun at noon.

These word of wisdom her gives her are “by one shepherd.” Ecc. 12:11

Following the lead of her shepherd she finds rest.  A husband is to shepherd the heart of his wife as the shepherd guided the one who loved him closer to himself/Himself.


Israel was to obey and thus follow the “voice” of a pre incarnate form of Christ so that they could have rest from “adversaries” Ex. 23:20 .    They were to obey His voice!!   God’s Name was in The Angel.   God’s Character was in The Angel therefore Israel was to obey His voice or no pardon for sin.   Meaning the proof that your sins have been pardoned is the fact that you obey the voice of God in The Angel who would guard them.  Which obedience came with a conditional promise.  “then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries

The Israelites should have loved The Angel.  Obeying His Voice would be an act of love on the part of Israel.  The principle idea is that Love desires to be close to the one you love.  If Israel loved God then they should desire to be near God more than the shepherd girl wanted to be near her spiritual shepherd by way of learning and obeying “the law of Moses” 1 Kings 2:3, and physical shepherd.

Exodus 23:20–24, “Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice, and provoke him not; for my name is in him. But if thou wilt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries. For mine Angel shall go before thee, to bring thee unto the Amorites,” etc. Here God reveals that he would commit the care of that congregation to a person that he calls his “angel” or “messenger,” in whom was his name or nature; his name, JEHOVAH, by which name God had a little before so solemnly revealed himself to that people by. JE

Moses was also a shepherd leader and Israel was to follow.  “They were all baptized into Moses.” That is a simple concept. They were immersed into his leadership. They were identified with him. It was Moses’ people, it was Moses crowd. They were one with their leader, that’s what that is saying. They were united as a community with one leader.  JM

The shepherd/Shepherd is her Noah.  Genesis 5:29 Now he called his name Noah, saying, “This one will give us rest from our work and from the toil of our hands arising from the ground which the Lord has cursed.”

we could say the manna and the water were evidence of the presence of Christ who accompanied them.


“kids”  Young female goats. If she were to have a flock of these coming down the mountain.  The glorious site is the same as the glorious beautiful site of her hair. 4:1, 6:5

Young goats were used by God when he made a covenant with Abraham Gen. 15:9, 18

The union of the shepherd kings heart to his people exhibits his love, his readiness to receive her into that near relation.

“Follow”  do shine with the same sort of brightness, the same mild, sweet and pleasant beams. These lamps of the spiritual temple, that are enkindled by fire from heaven, burn with the same sort of flame. The branch is of the same nature with the stock and root, has the same sap, and bears the same sort of fruit. The members have the same kind of life with the head. It would be strange if Christians should not be of the same temper and spirit that Christ is of; when they are his flesh and his bone, yea are one spirit (I Corinthians 6:17), and live so, that it is not they that live, but Christ that lives in them. A Christian spirit is Christ’s mark, that he sets upon the souls of his people; his seal in their foreheads, bearing his image and superscription. Christians are the followers of Christ: and they are so, as they are obedient to that call of Christ, Matthew 11:28–29, “Come to me, and learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of heart.” They follow him as the Lamb; Revelation 14:14, “These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth.” JE

A bride is to “follow” Jeremiah 2:2  “as a bride you loved me and followed me through the wilderness,”

The shepherd king also wants the one who loves her to be where he is like Jesus did in John 17:24  “Father, I desire that they also, whom You have given Me, be with Me where I am” 


The shepherd invites the sunburnt Gentile into the fellowship of the Israelites, similar to how another enemy of God, Rahab, was a friend of the spies and was a true Jew at heart.

“follow”  “Though the path is before you, and you may walk in it if you really choose it, yet it is a way which is strait, and there are many difficulties in the way; the whole way is ascending. That glorious city of light and love is , as it were, on the top of an high hill, an elevation which is exalted above the hill, and there is no arriving there without traveling uphill. Though this be wearisome, yet it is worth your while to come and dwell in such a glorious city at last. Be willing therefore to comply with this labor.” JE

“Follow”   He tells her how to get what she wants.  She asked and he answered.  When her fear of drawing near is overcome by her understanding his love to her then she willingly desires for him to shepherd her closer to him.  When the time is right in dating the woman can ask the man to sharpen her as “iron sharpens iron”.   Leading her spiritually will be his job and here she gets a taste of it before marriage.

Follow”  She asked a question to the one she loves, the king, who is also a physical shepherd.  The fact that she asks a question and he answer her and tells her where to find rest, he is then leading her to physical rest out of the noonday sun.  A shepherd of humans gives advice and his followers listen and then obey.  He is now her king and a kings job is to shepherd his people.  He leads her to finding rest.  The king is fulfilling his role as a physical shepherd helping his servant find physical rest as a shepherd of sheep gives physical rest to animal sheep.  To love and care for the sheep.

Physical rest for the slave girl that she never had before.  Solomon is all three, the shepherd of her physical body, thus giving her body rest from the sun.   He is her spiritual shepherd for it is her soul that that will get what it desires.  He is also a physical shepherd of animal sheep for he has a flock.  Jealous for her physical good and happiness of soul, so he lets her know what to do and where to go to find rest.

She gets drawn closer 1:4, since his mouth is “sweetness itself” all his words where delightful to hear. 5:16.  They are just getting to know one another on a personal level for the first time.  She acknowledges her affection for him and he acknowledges how he feels about her.

Her doing so would be a partial fulfillment of  the “peace and rest”  Solomon would bring in 1 Chronicles 22:9.


Transition from 1:8 to 1:9

Knowing she wants to be “drawn by him closer to him in a hurry” Song 1:4 and she just asked where he rests his sheep at noon away from the hot sun, what do you think she will do if it was getting close to the hottest part of the day?

She would be swift and fearless in her pursuit of him due to her “love” 1:7 and to be there where he would be resting in the shade when she normally was normally being scorched by the noon day sun.

Wether or not she immediately follows him or waits until it is noon to be there resting beside him and his flock it doesn’t matter,  she is still worthy of the compliment because her swift eagerness and ardent affections were clear in 1:4 and in her desire to be near him expressed in 1:7.  So he gives her the answer she wanted and then praises her inner beauty in 1:9 and her outer beauty in 1:10.

1:9-1:14  Remember the first time we me and I was in hot pursuit of you.  Then you praised my moral beauty and external beauty and made a promise to me.  Do you know what I was thinking and feeling at that time?  These delightful words are one of the old sweet fruits of her love to him.  That she shared with him in their vineyard. 7:13

Solomon’s Song of Songs 1:9-10

Song 1:9

My friend” “He addresses her, “my love:” she is not yet his bride. ‏רַעְיָה‎ (female friend), from ‏רָעַי‎ (‏רָעָה), to guard, care for, tend, ethically: to delight in something particularly, to take pleasure in intercourse or conversation with one,” KD

“Friend” 1:9,15, 2:2,10,13, 4:1,7, 5:2, 6:4, Judges 11:37

Friend forever into eternity for love is forever.  Not only are they not enemies but friends and he is a friend above all other’s 5:9,10,16.

“friend”  King Jesus didn’t call His disciples just servants but friends John 15:15.  So also king Solomon didn’t call her a servant but a friend.  A more intimate relationship was being formed, closer than that of a servant to a king but that also of a friend to a friend.  No slander or repeating of a sinful matter in this relationship for those would “separate friends” Prov. 16:28, 17:9.

Speaking of Song 4:1 KD translates “my darling” to be “my friend”

John 15:14, “You are my friends if you do whatsoever I command you.”  Meaning that  they were not enemies.  They would be his friend and fellow companions if they did what he said.  Her love to the king and shepherd is proven by her obedience to the king, Israel’s Messiah and Shepherd.  He told her to “follow” and “rest” 1:8/

“This scene contains a conversation between Solomon and his beloved, whom he at first calls friend, and then, drawing always nearer to her, bride.”

my darling”  means “companion or friend”  no need to change it to being something sweet.  She wants to be by his companions.  and here he calls her friend or companion and then in 5:16 he is her friend.  She is one he “guards, cares for, and tends with an emphasis on the delight and pleasure which attends that responsibility.”  (G.L. Carr 1984) and almost always used in the first half of the book.

“He who loves purity of heart And whose speech is gracious, the king is his friend.”

Friendship on fire!

Friend, no fear, Mare in battle.  She would have to keep and believe who he was, what he was like and the promises about him in her mind always, along with who she was and is now in order for her to not fear and draw close to him/Him.  (Israel would have peace from their enemies during his reign.  They would get rest in the promised land.) He would live out his name, peace.  She wants this rest in the promised land and he told her what to do in order to have it and be near him at the same time.  She waisted no time because she was in a “hurry” 1:4 and he compliments her character for it.  Due to the extreme value of such a mare possessed of both an excellent character and appearance the mare would be adorned with precious and valuable gems and metals.  He is saying that she is worthy to be adorned due to her character and so he says, “We will make you earrings of gold, studded with silver.”

No Fear.  I John 4:18, “There is no fear in love, but perfect love casts out fear.” These two opposite principles of lust and holy love, bring hope and fear into the hearts of God’s children, in proportion as they prevail; that is, when left to their own natural influence, without something adventitious, or accidental intervening; as the distemper of melancholy, doctrinal ignorance, prejudices of education, wrong instruction, false principles, peculiar temptations, etc. Fear is cast out.” JE

“friend”  must be illustrated in a way that they are now on the same side.  Friends and not enemies.

My Darling”  Companion.  Used nearly overtime Solomon speaks to his bride to be and bride.  Reminiscent of Adam and Eve.

friend”  Enmity appears in peoples judgements “People are ready to entertain a good esteem of those with whom they are friends: They are apt to think highly of their qualities, to give them their due praises; and if there be defects, to cover them But those to whom they are enemies, they are disposed to have mean thoughts of; they are apt to entertain a dishonorable opinion of them: they will be ready to look contemptibly upon any thing that is praise-worthy in them.”  (Volume 2 page 130.  Can list how she was an enemy and all the ways a polar opposite of holy Solomon so that you wonder how can it be that he calls her his friend and companion.  It is because now she has a love like that of Song 8:6-7 in her heart.)

Enmity appears in their natural relish, their wills, affections and practice.  They have an inbred distaste and disrelish of God’s perfections unlike the Gentile slave girl 1:2.  They are at enmity with God’s will for their wills are contrary to His.  He wills things they hate and are most averse to.  God wills that they love their enemies and deny themselves.  It is from the enmity of the will that the “carnal mind is not subject to the law of God.”  Those without true love in their hearts are at enmity with God in their affections for they have malice toward him in their swearing, anger and using His name in vain.  She was a gentile and at enmity with him as would appear in her practice in life, neglecting her vineyard, continuing in sin, not following the Torah, not praying, not praising Yaweh, not sacrificing, eating pig.  What business does an unbelieving, unloving pig eating unclean Gentile have with a believing and loving kosher clean Jew?  Song 2:13-15 shows that she is apt to think these foxes or differences may keep their relationship from blossoming.

My friend

“One who loves a pure heart and who speaks with grace will have the king for a friend.”

“In the account of the original Creation, God created Eve from Adam’s rib, shaping her, like Adam, in God’s own image to be a suitable companion for Adam.”

Richards, L., & Richards, L. O. (1987). The teacher’s commentary (p. 356). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

you are like My mare among the chariots of Pharaoh.”

First chariots in numbers by Huns and Mongols  were around 2,000 BC in the steps of Asia  48 min mark of this video first warrior horses.

Chariots would often have blades on the wheels.   Chariots were often used in flat desert land where speed, power and endurance were important.

White stallions were also bread for war and would often wear battle gear and just run over the enemy.

The beauty and excellency of the bride and her spirit consists in Love.

“Mare” a female horse, therefore it is a more fitting comparison.

“the man does not compare the woman to a mare “among the chariots of pharaoh” but “to a mare belonging to [the horses that are with] the chariots of pharaoh” (לְסֻסָתִי בְּרִכְבֵי פַרְעֹה). Put another way, the mare is a member of the class of horses that are with the chariots of pharaoh. As such, the mare cannot be an alien horse released by an enemy among the stallions.” WBC

The point is not that she looks like a horse. Instead, she is likened to a horse among pharaoh’s chariots in that she, like the horse, is magnificent to look upon. The only point of actual visual similarity is that both she and the mare attached to pharaoh’s chariot are adorned in splendid ornamentation.” WBC

What is of value is adorned with ornaments.  She is adorned because being “lovely and/or suitable” 1:5 she is worth more than diamonds and rubies.

Since the character of the bride to be is being compared to a mare and she loves the shepherd king.  The quality and nature of her love is revealed to us in 8:6-7,  therefore we can ascribe “strength” to her character for love is strong as the death.  You can add jealousy to her love, unquenchability, inextinguishable and can’t be bought to her character qualities.  This woman is on fire for the greatest type of Christ alive at the time.

Holiness is the highest sort of excellency or perfection that ever the creature attains unto; ’tis the highest beauty that shines in the creation.

Love manifested in no fear of being put back into slavery and sin under Gods wrath.  She has no fear of the wrath of God through the king of peace for love was made complete in her 1 John 4:18

We all are commanded to think of those things that are praiseworthy Phil. 4:8 for it is God in your wife, Love dwelling in your wife making her worthy of praise Song 8:6 with Prov. 31:28-30  So think back.  What has the bride done and what does that reveal to us about her heart.  Love to God and his son and king is manifested and worthy of praise.

She had to destroy the fox of enmity against a holy God by understand His Love to her in the person and work of the coming Messiah.  His love to His enemies.  Believing the promises she gets credited righteousness Gen. 15:6

“Virtue”  1 Pt. 1 5:-10.  Phil. 4:8  root meaning “warlike valor”  “Add to your faith virtue..”  Faith believes our husband/Husband to be the Messiah of Israel, God’s son, the king of peace otherwise we fear his wrath or punishment like being back in slavery and sin under the sun getting burnt.

“mare”  the general consensus on Quora on horse racing is that the majority of records were by male horses yet a female in heat will run faster and is easier to control.  So I gather she was in heat so to speak in her pursuit of Solomon.   And harnessed to pharaohs chariot would be because easier to control than a male.  So in context, we seem to fit the exceptions and not the general rule that males are faster.

There is an appearance of “a horse prepared for battle”  Rev. 9:7 and she has got it.

  1. Fearless of the Wrath of God.  Not fearing an intimate relationship with the king of peace even though she had the stigma of being an enemy due to her sunburn.
  2. Her swift pursuit of him.  1:4.  “Take me away with you, let us hurry!”
  3. Courageous or fearless in her proclamation of her testimony.  Courage to share her faith.  Now that she had the beautiful love of God in her heart she wasn’t afraid to say something about it.  Boldness
  4. “Tell me you whom I love, where”  Obedient.  All her acts thus far are all expression of love 8:6.  She does what God would want her to do, she goes to her shepherd king when needing advice.  A good horse like pharaoh would have been trained to be obedient in the most difficult situations.
  5. Powerful.  The mare harnessed to Paraoh’s chariot would be the most powerful.
    “A horse is a vain hope for deliverance; despite all its great strength it cannot save.”
  6. Pharaoh’s mare was the most unstoppable force.  Unquenchable and not even death could stop her love. 8:6
  7. Knowledgable and experienced in battle.  Most skilled.  Tried and tested.  Skilled to do her duty well.  Fully equipped with the Love of God written on her heart and united to her perfect husband she has nothing to fear and every reason to keep moving forward.
  8. In battle against the enemy a horse or multiple horses would generally be a force to be feared apart from God.  Deut. 20:1
  9. Known for “charging”  A word with energy, vigor and purpose.  Not only strong but ardent and fervent in it’s charging into battle.
  10. “Majestic” beauty.   Zech. 10:3   Beauty from 1:8.  Beauty would not be the first thing a Pharoah would look for in a battle horse.  But if it was powerful, fearless, sufficient in every way to help him win then beauty would be a secondary bonus.  Yet what powerful and fearless mare isn’t beautiful?
  11. Most valuable.  Her true value and worth comes from her noble character, the excellency of her nature. The value of any possession is known by the fruit or profit which is obtained by it.

This high esteem the one she loves has for her is expressed after he see’s her praiseworthy character.  One of the highest compliments is proper for “”the most beautiful woman”  had she not been beautiful both inside and out then the compliment would be invalid, yet she has the Love of God, his Flame in her heart therefore she trusted that the king of peace would not harm her, even though by all outward appearance of her skin she looked like an enemy but he treated her like a friend 5:16.  She had no fear of Wrath from God for she had love to God on her heart.  Song 8:6 and 1 John 4

“God, who delights in the exercise of his perfection, delights in all kinds of its exercise.”

Solomon see’s her in her pursuit of him and compliments it.   He likens her to a mare.   a mare in battle.  The fastest most fearless and most obedient to the one/One in authority over her.  The best horse in all Egypt was attached to Pharaohs chariot.   She is the most beautiful woman and here in 1:9 we see 4 clear reason why her inner soul is beautiful and then in 1:10 he compliments her external beauty.  She is beautiful both inside and out.

“Who led them through the depths? Like the horse in the wilderness, they did not stumble”

Celerity. “let us hurry..” in 1:4 gives us a lively illustration of urgency or speed in the relationship.  She is not waiting around.  Celerity is an ever increasing swiftness of movement about her pursuit.  She gets better and better at it, in order to be harnessed to the great pharaoh.  The relationship increases with sweet celerity.  Like a mare in battle moving forward swiftly and powerfully.

Endurance.  Run the farthest and not get tired.  Endurance speaks to duration.  Power enough for the duration of the battle.  Unstoppable and unquenchable endurance.  8:6-7

Faithful and Fearless.  The bride is fearless.  She is bold and does not fear harm.  She is faith filled and fearless.   No anxieties, nothing holding her back from her pursuit of him. She knows “his desire is for her”  his ardent affection was for her.  Song 7:10   She obeyed her wise king and good shepherd without fear in 1:8 so Solomon compliments her fearless behavior in 1:9.  She has no fear of punishment or wrath from God through Solomon to her.  Song 8:6 and 1 John

Obedience.  If you love your king/king, you will obey him/Him.  God would want the bride to be to pursue Solomon.  She was obedient to God in her pursuit of Solomon.  Indicated by her being “harnessed to pharaoh’s chariot.”

Experienced in battle.  If you want intimacy with your king/King, the one you love, your good shepherd then you must be humble and experienced in battle in order to be worthy of praise.  Pharaoh mare would have been the most experienced horse on the field.  Able to crush her enemies with hooves like flint. Isaiah 5:28

The neighing of a battle horse would provoke fear and trembling.  Jeremiah 8:16 “The snorting of the enemy’s horses is heard from Dan; at the neighing of their stallions the whole land trembles.”

All of which makes her precious and valuable to him.  More precious than rubies.  What adorns her is precious and valuable to him.  Her virtues, her faith, her love her behavior and experience in battle are all desirable qualities of a wife.  Marriage is a battle and so is our relationship with Christ.  We must but our amor on and fight with celerity, faithfulness, courage, obedience and get experienced at it.

A mare that helps to make peace between mutual enemies, proving she was on his side.

a mare” is fearless.  A friend is fearless.   “There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear, because fear involves punishment, and the one who fears is not perfected in love.”  The princess of peace has not fear of experiencing “whipping” from Solomon because she looked like an enemy of God because she had “love” in her heart 8:6.  Love to God, man, the king, his people, the angels, the coming Messiah.

In battle.  The specific purpose of Pharaoh’s mare was to serve the will of the king specifically in battle.  I believe all lively similarities in context can be used.  What spiritual battle was she in and could the shepherd/king observe her behavior in it as that of a mare harnessed to Pharaoh’s chariot.  Clearly any spiritual battle is done for God our  King, for his glory and name.   Love was her motive, “Tell me you whom I love…”  Her words express her love and desire to be near him “where you” and eagerness to listen to his advice “Tell me“, 1:7.

mare”  “horse”  The horse Solomon bought was worth 2-3 years wages.  150 Shekels of siver.  And A chariot worth 5x that.

His pleasure is not in the strength of the horse,
    nor his delight in the legs of the warrior;
11 the Lord delights in those who fear him,
    who put their hope in his unfailing love.  Ps. 147:10-11

The joy of the Lord is our strength Neh. 8:10

With ever increasing celerity or swiftness of movement.

A mare would be adorned for its value and to add to its beauty.  The mare is valuable for being swift, fearless and obedience to the pharaoh which ever way he wants her to go in battle.

This is not a woman pining for a man that doesn’t notice her but a king who adores her every move.  Not only does he notice her but there is much thought in making the comparison.  A wise man chooses his words.

She moved his affections to praise her.  She roused him at a time when love manifests itself in praise of the brides manifestation of her inner beauty.  Her swift and fearless pursuit of him is admirable and praiseworthy.  Prov. 31:28

He praises her.  She gains before the work for this is one main cause, why those weighty joys, sweet embracements, and ravishing consolations are given her,  that she may cheerfully run the race, and perform the service set before her.

1 John 4:18  “There is no fear in love”

1 Peter 3:5-7 “Likewise, wives, be subject to your own husbands, so that even if some do not obey the word, they may be won without a word by the conduct of their wives, when they see your respectful and pure conduct. Do not let your adorning be external—the braiding of hair and the putting on of gold jewelry, or the clothing you wear— but let your adorning be the hidden person of the heart with the imperishable beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which in God’s sight is very precious. For this is how the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves, by submitting to their own husbands.”

Titus 2:1-15  “But as for you, teach what accords with sound doctrine. Older men are to be sober-minded, dignified, self-controlled, sound in faith, in love, and in steadfastness. Older women likewise are to be reverent in behavior, not slanderers or slaves to much wine. They are to teach what is good, and so train the young women to love their husbands and children, to be self-controlled, pure, working at home, kind, and submissive to their own husbands, that the word of God may not be reviled.”

Husbands, in the same way be considerate as you live with your wives, and treat them with respect as the weaker partner and as heirs with you of the gracious gift of life, so that nothing will hinder your prayers.

Solomon the good shepherd knew she was the most beautiful of all women.  Knowing this should help calm her fears.  Why would a husband reject the most beautiful bride?  Nothing would hold him back from loving the most holy, blameless and morally beautiful on the inside and out.  She had it all except that sunburn stigma that made people think she was an enemy of God.  She didn’t fear punishment from Solomon and to Solomon this was beautiful about her, that though she was an enemy of God she did not fear the wrath of God because she had love “the very flame of the LORD” in her heart and not enmity like before.

“mare” “horse”  “For the LORD of hosts has visited His flock, the house of Judah, And will make them like His majestic horse in battleZech 10:3

my darling” can be translated “my love or my friend, companion”.   Even though it is courtship he is the one her hearts loves 1:7 and he returns the sweetness back by giving her advice she desperately desired with the words “If you do not know most beautiful of women,”   follow and rest.  She listens without haste and he compliments her pursuit of him and compare it to a mare harnessed to pharaohs chariot at the same time letting her know that she is “his love”  she is the one his heart loves.  The feelings are mutual.  The oneness is beginning, but there are still many “foxes” to be caught.

Here we see that Solomon’s compliment is to the character of the bride.  A mare harnessed to pharaoh’s chariot would have to have been the best of the best.  Obviously it would have to be fast or swift in battle,  Obedient to the Pharaoh, also experienced and fearless on the battlefield.  This type of mare would be praiseworthy.  She was a woman who was previously an enemy of God but now doesn’t fear his wrath, desires union with the greatest type of Christ alive.  Has tasted his love and desired more and waisted no time pursing him.  So she was swift, fearless and obedient to God because God would want her to pursue a man who’s name is pleasing to her.

This type of character makes her wise and worth more than rubies.

Watch this video and imagine that Solomon would be comparing his bride to the best one.  Imagine pursuing Christ this as much intensity as those horse have in battle!


Here is an example of a man in courtship praising his suitor similar to how a husband ought to praise his wife. Prov. 31:28-30

God likened Israel to a “horse in open country”  “that did not stumble”  in their pursuit of a closer more intimate relationship with God.


Clearly she is adorned in a way that is beautiful for he says her cheeks are beautiful.  Her cheeks themselves weren’t what he complimented he compliments her the combination. The fact that her cheeks had precious jewelry made her praiseworthy.  She knew how to adorn herself for his pleasure and delight.

10Comely have been thy cheeks with garlands, Thy neck with chains.

Comely”  same word describes the feet of those who bring good news.  Is. 52:7  Desirable, befitting, lovely and beautiful.  She is desirable and what adorns her befits her, wether it be her “curly” hair or “turned” jewelry.

She had not the jewelry before but does now.  The man she accepts his favor and high honor toward her.

The point is that there is something of value and beauty that she has that compliments her cheeks and her neck and he is pleased and delighted with her and her adornments, illustrating the wisdom of a husband who see’s and delights in the beauty of his wife and lets her know it with sweet words of “praise” Prov. 31:28, like drops of honey and myrrh from his mouth.

She is happy and drawn closer to him when he gives sweet verbal affirmation of her loveliness.  Her desire was for him to “draw her to himself” 1:4, closer, woo her to himself.  Here he is doing so.

Abraham gave Sarah jewelry when they met.  Gen. 24:22,30

God’s people had royal value.  Isaiah 62:3, “Thou shalt also be a crown of glory in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God.” Zechariah 9:16, “And they shall be as the stones of a crown”.

He saw her as she was positionally and practically.  Practically because she was worthy of the comparison.

“Your cheeks are lovely with ornaments,
Your neck with strings of beads.”

Your cheeks are lovely with that which beautifies them.


Your cheeks are beautiful with earrings,
    your neck with strings of jewels.


Douay-Rheims Bibleshow  “Thy cheeks are beautiful as the turtledove’s, thy neck as jewels.”

Quite the difference in translations.  HHHmmm.  Either way the point is that her “neck” and “cheeks” are attractive and precious to him and worthy of adoration.  God made her beautiful to reflect His Beauty and Glory.  Her neck and cheeks are beautifully adorned therefore her beauty has value.  The value is increased when her beauty increases.  The greater her beauty the more delightfully set are his eyes upon her for her moral and natural beauty that captivates him and ravishes his eye.

Your”  He is sweetly speaking in front of and direct to her as he looks into her doves eyes.   He says “Your cheeks”  Yes, a woman cheeks are a beautiful feature of their face.  But also they are the cheeks of a woman that has caught his eye.  She has aroused his affection towards her by her loving character and outer beauty.  When love flashes it is “her” cheeks, the cheeks of the one he loves that are beautiful, not  some other woman.  He is bond to her in love and her cheeks are lovely.

cheeks”  ?it seems that the compliments and praises get more and more intimate.  First her cheeks, (possibly behind a veil) , then her eyes 1:15, then removed when she shows her face and lets him hear her voice. 2:13-14.  Then her hair, eyes, teeth, temples and breasts.  or her tope half 4:1-5,  Then again her top half,  Then foot to head 7:1-6

Her neck is not haughty and “outstretched” like a shameless prostitute Is. 3:16

Notice the beauty that Solomon adores before the marriage is much less than afterward. The body parts adored are just her cheeks and neck with precious jewelry.  Whereas later he adores just about everything. 6:4-10 and 7:1-7

This is either a continuation of verse 9 or it stands alone as another aspect about the bride that makes her beautiful to him.  Either way it is still a praise of her beauty, letting the bride know what the one she loves loves about her.

“and the splendor of the earthly bodies is another.” 1 Cor. 15:40  God fit her body to her soul.

The good shepherd and king praised her beauty, She was beautiful with ornaments on her cheeks and chains of gold on her neck.  Assuming her cheeks and neck would be of lesser luster without the ornaments and jewelry.  If ornaments and jewelry beautified the physical aspects of the bride how much more so does her praiseworthy character make her more desirable, valuable and precious.  Its and argument from the lesser outward beauty to the greater inner beauty and adornment of the heart.

Solomon is adoring the beauty of his bride to be.  She is “the most beautiful of women” in 1:8 and now after complimenting her mare like character in battle obedient to the one in authority over her v9.   Solomon then moves on in v. 10 to adore two other features of his bride to be that are both beautiful and valuable.   Her adornments added to her external beauty.  Pharaoh would adorn his mare with the most precious jewels and necklaces.

The idea is that her adornments make her beautiful.  See the word “with”.   Her cheeks are beautiful with earrings.  As if you take the earrings away and she is not beautiful.  Here beauty has value.   Preciousness and value adorn his bride.  Precious adornment are fitting for a bride of noble character.

You must know that communion with God is not a legal dispensation ; and therefore, every person that is duly under the Law cannot enjoy communion with God because they remain under the law until God moves them into is infinite ocean of grace.

He values her, he praises her, she has a worthy character and he desires her more than earrings of gold.

She has value, she is worth more than rubies due to her union with the coming Messiah, she has value due to who she is.  She is valued not only for her love but also for who she is in the coming Messiah.  Is. 43:4 Since you are precious in My sight,
Since you are honored and I love you,”

Husband are to value their wives for who they are in Christ.  Christ has made them valuable and precious.

She wore expensive, valuable, desirable jewelry making her more beautiful, particularly her cheeks and neck were beautiful and attractive.

Since the comparison is to that of a mare in battle.   The real true value of the mare is in its speed or how fast and long it can run, it’s fearlessness and quality of obedience.

Theses are the inner qualities of a mare harnessed to pharaohs chariot would have to the utmost.  He would also have the best of the best and most experienced in battle.  Perfectly obedient to (Pharaoh) the one in authority over her.  Pharaohs mare would have to be absolutely obedient.  Solomon see’s her doing the will of God in her pursuit of him.   Harnessed to pharaohs chariot.  If you love him you will obey.  If you love and trust him you will joyfully obey.

These qualities are praiseworthy in the bride.  As a good husband does Prov. 31:28-30, Solomon praises his wife.  Her love to Solomon, the flame of the LORD in her made her swift and fearless character in her pursuit/drawing near to Solomon.  A stricter union both physically and spiritually was desired by the Bride and she didn’t waist any time and was not fearful of punishment from Solomon though by every outward look of her she deserved nothing but the wrath of God.  So the compliment goes on of her true inner adornments that were precious,  and valuable, honorable, praiseworthy to him.  Husbands are to honor their wives.  One way to honor your wife is to praise her for being fearless of any harm, swift in her pursuit of the closest intimacy out of her love to God and husband.  Like pharaoh mare harnessed to his chariot in battle is praiseworthy so is the brides character at this point in the courtship.

 An excellent wife, who can find? For her worth is far above jewels.
The tongue of the righteous is as choice silver, The heart of the wicked is worthlittle.
Malachi 3:17, “in the day that I make up my jewels”; Psalms 135:4, “The Lord hath chosen Jacob unto himself, and Israel for his peculiar treasure.”

Certainly her inner character is beautiful to Solomon.  Her love is beautiful.  A mare harnessed to Pharaoh chariot would have to be extremely obedient.  Obedience to pharoah  is being compared to love.   The mare loved Pharaoh so to speak.  She is likened to the mare and her adornments beautify her.  He is praising her and what makes her beautiful to him at this juncture of the relationship.

A properly adorned bride is compared to a “Holy” city.  Holiness adorns the bride’s innermost being like jewelry adorns the physical body making her more beautiful, lovely, valuable and desirable to him.   How much more so would holiness in her heart enflame His love to her. 4:9

  •  “I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready as a bride adorned for her groom.” (Revelation 21:2)

We will”  a promise

A spiritual application of the Word of God consists in applying it to the heart, in spiritually enlightening, sanctifying influences. A spiritual application of an invitation or offer of the gospel consists in giving the soul a spiritual sense or relish of the holy and divine blessings offered, and also the sweet and wonderful grace of the offerer, in making so gracious an offer, and of his holy excellency and faithfulness to fulfill what he offers, and his glorious sufficiency for it; so leading and drawing forth the heart to embrace the offer; and thus giving the man evidence of his title to the thing offered. And so a spiritual application of the promises of Scripture, for the comfort of the saints, consists in enlightening their minds to see the holy excellency and sweetness of the blessings promised, and also the holy excellency of the promiser, and his faithfulness and sufficiency; thus drawing forth their hearts to embrace the promiser, and thing promised; and by this means, giving the sensible actings of grace, enabling them to see their grace, and so their title to the promise. An application not consisting in this divine sense and enlightening of the mind, but consisting only in the words being borne into the thoughts, as if immediately then spoken, so making persons believe, on no other foundation, that the promise is theirs; is a blind application, and belongs to the spirit of darkness, and not of light.


We will make you earring of gold studded with silver.”

The bride is “the most beautiful of women” v. 8 and all involved in making her more beautiful promise to do so here.

Later in the Song the bride gives advice to adorn with silver a virgin girl when she is spoken for.  The fact that they are going to make her adornments studded with silver indicates that s

Solomon, the king speaking, for a servant wouldn’t speak for the king but the king has the right and authority to say “we”  meaning to  include all who have a hand in making her garlands of gold studded with silver.

If a virgin then a bride price must be paid.   EX. 22:17

Holiness and virginity were of great importance in holy Israel.  2 Sam. 13:12

We.  Not only gives us an idea that all who will make her the earrings and adorn her now have bond themselves by promise to the bride for her benefit.  Love.

The bride gets honored.

To be adorned is synonymous with being “ready”.

“And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, made ready as a bride adorned for her husband.”

Woman of virtue were adorned with silver.

8:9 “If she is a wall, we will build towers of silver on her.”  All who adorn her are honoring her virtue.  Having the love of God in her heart 8:6 she is part of the called and beloved “virgin Israel” Jer. 31:3-4

Here again it is difficult to know who the “we” is therefore I explain who the we is by their actions. What are the “we” doing?  They are promising to make the bride more beautiful, therefore the speakers are either all who are involved in the beautification of the bride or Solomon speaking on behalf of himself, all of Israel ( and God is implied in the process as well )

They will

It may be easy to get caught up in the exact words rather than getting the idea.  The idea is that he saw his future bride and she was the most beautiful woman and he tells her in 1:8, 1:9 is him praising her inner beauty manifested in her fearless and swift pursuit of a closer more intimate relationship with Israel’s Messiah. 1:10 lets us know what adds value to her beauty thus making her precious to him, then all who are involved in making her more beautiful and precious to him promise to do so in 1:11.

The point is

  1. This is a promise  “we will”
  2. A promise to beautify her.  The Beautifier promise to make her more beautiful.  Beauty is that by virtue of which being is creative, for it is the beautifying rather than the beautified that is most truly Beautiful. (Delattre Beauty)
  3. All who are involved in her beautification promise to make her more beautiful for the wedding.  “We”   This includes Solomon, God in the Son, Angels, brides maids etc.
  4. The jewelry added to her beauty.  Her cheeks were beautiful with ornaments.  How she was adorned pleased Solomon, yet more beauty and value could be added for they promised to make her earrings of gold studded with silver.
  5. Why are they making her more beautiful?  For the wedding day.
    1. To make her more attractive or desirable.
      1. They desire for the bride to be as attractive as possible, as beautiful and full of value for her beloved.  Solomon just got done adoring her internal and external beauty and they say they will make her more beautiful.  Like this is just the start of your beauty, we will adorn you will more.
    2. To make her more valuable
      1.  If she thought she was worthless in and of herself but beautiful and valuable only due to the Love of God written on her heart Song 8:6 and she was starring faithfully with her doves eyes v12 focused on God alone who had given her Solomon due to His great love to His Bride 1 Kings 9:8, and since the bride was a believer now she would be also the bride of God. Is. 54:5  “For your Maker is your husband– the LORD Almighty is his name– the Holy One of Israel is your Redeemer; he is called the God of all the earth.”  So as a faithful husband adorns his bride externally, God her heavenly husband promises to beautify her heart as well.  God her Husband will make her holier by revealing Himself to her whole heart.  As she beholds the beauty of the Lord in the temple Ps. 27:4 and 2 Cor. 3:18   The Song is divided into 4 phases of the beautification of the soul once united to God through a sufficient mediator.  He makes her more beautiful and valuable all the way to the end!  How much value do you put on the Holy Spirit in your heart? It is a promise to make her more beautiful, valuable, precious and desirable on her wedding day.  To add greatness to her beauty or a higher degree of it thus adding value to the bride herself.  A godly wife is worth more than rubies.

All who are involved in helping the bride to become more beautiful promise to make her so by adding precious and valuable adornments that her lover delights in more than wine.

If she was feeling the least bit like she might not be adorned with enough value then promise to beautify her as iron sharpens iron.  Israel’s greatest Messiah promised to make her more desirable by adorning her with things that made her more precious and valuable to him.  More beauty.  He said she was beautiful in 1:9, more adornments on her face added value to her in his eyes therefore making her more precious to him. Then the king and all who are involved with making her more beautiful promise to make her “earrings of gold studded with silver”  Why?  Because she was a locked garden deserving adornment

What makes her so special that the good shepherd of her heart would promise to make her more beautiful?  It is the role of the king to sanctify God’s people as it is the king of peace who will adorn his bride.  Her husband/Husband is her ultimate most precious adornment.

We will make”  They, Israel’s Messiah and others who make ornaments promise to make her more precious and valuable to Israel’s Messiah.  He confers beauty upon her for her moral and external beauty is what he most delights in and values about her.   They love her.  They want whats best for her so they promise to make her more beautiful for love delights in the happiness of the object of its affection. (Misc. 314)

Earring of Gold”  Psalm 45: with 2 Chronicles 9:10, Is. 13:12,   “studded with silver” 8:9 “silver”

Virgins were also adorned, they adorned them with “towers of silver” 8:9, and Song 5:12 implies by application that she is a virgin.

(The servants of Hiram and the servants of Solomon brought gold from Ophir; they also brought algumwood and precious stones

    Its common sense

A young woman does not forget her jewelry, and a bride does not forget her wedding ornaments. (Jeremiah 2:32)

Ez. 16:17  God gave Israel his bride jewelry.

“I delight greatly in the Lord; my soul rejoices in my God. For he has clothed me with garments of salvation and arrayed me in a robe of his righteousness, as a bridegroom adorns his head like a priest, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.”
He adorned the temple with precious stones.


  • Overall Statements
  • Definitions
  • Exposition of the text
  • Principal truths
  • Doctrine of love from 8:6
  • Application seen in their marriage
  • Application to the believer
  • Cross References and other links

Overall statements

While being praised, she doesn’t esteem herself but highly values him.  the essence of evangelical humiliation consists in such humility, as becomes a creature, in itself exceeding sinful, under a dispensation of grace; consisting in a mean esteem of himself, as in himself nothing, and altogether contemptible and odious; attended with a mortification of a disposition to exalt himself, and a free renunciation of his own glory. This is a great and most essential thing in true religion.

The character that the one she loves sustains, and his relation to her recommend his excellencies to her esteem and love.

Here you have two most excellent lovers expressing their love to one another in his being there for her and she is happy he is there for her for he/He is the one/One she loves 1:7.   Her praises her and in so doing his love to her is reciprocated in her highly esteeming him like “myrrh”, and highly esteeming his beauties and excellencies like beholding a “cluster of henna blossoms”

Having him clearly on her mind as the flame of love in her heart is burning hotter she highly values him while he is in her presence adoring her moral beauty and value as a virgin.  1:11 with 8:9

1 Peter 2:9
But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God’s own possession, to proclaim the virtues of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light.

1:11-1:2  Transition.  1:12-14 is not an actual verbal conversation between the king and queen to be.   But is what she was thinking and feeling in the presence of her king as he praised and adored her.  She was pleased that in his presence her perfume spread it’s fragrance.  And she knew it would please him and thus keep and hopefully draw him closer for who would want a stinky bride?

Would sharing these thoughts and emotions with her husband at a later date be a telling him of the love to him that was in her heart the first time the shepherd king she loved praised and adored her.


While the king was around my perfume spread its fragrance.

While”  This word gives us the context.  She is supping with her king.  Mutual delight in his role as king and shepherd and he delights in being her sovereign king and her only desire is to please him.  Their sweetly communing one with the other depends on how well she can please him and continue to do so.  The sweet harmony and happiness of the relationship depends on it.

In his presence her perfume went forth.  In his presence her love is set a fire.  She desired to please him.  Her satisfaction was in pleasing him.  Love is happy when the object of its affection is happy.

In his presence she senses a love of complacency.  In his presence she has a feeling of joy and delight in him, desire to please him and highly values him and his beauty expressed in Song 1:13-14

So the one she loves is thinking of her character and delighting in her inner beauty in 1:9 and outer beauty in 1:10 all the while her perfume is spreading its fragrance while she is at the same time he is having precious thoughts of her beauty she is highly valuing him/Him.  While or at the same time.  They are highly esteeming the ones/Ones they love at the same time.  The feelings are mutual and holy when they are together communing with each other, her esteeming his excellencies as he is adoring her moral and physical beauty.  “While”  This teaches us how to commune one with another in love/Love.

King” is her lover, the bridegroom, who has in her eyes the significance, beauty, and charm worthy of a king. She thus declares that her spikenard gives off its fragrance when he comes to his “circle,” that is, near her or “around”. Translated into simple terms, she is saying that the spikenard gives off its fragrance in the presence of the “king,” her groom, who is around and near her.

The governing topic is the question, What enhances the woman’s beauty? The man and the chorus desire to adorn her with expensive ornaments of gold and silver. This sentiment is not bad, and it is born of love for her, but it substitutes a superficial embellishment for true adornments. She asserts rather that her desirability is enhanced by her fragrances of spikenard, myrrh, and henna and that her beauty is enhanced by the love of her lover. She gives off the fragrance of spikenard as she is in his presence. She will have him, like her myrrh, between her breasts. He is like henna in that he adorns the beauty of her. The fragrance of these perfumes is like love itself; it is invisible but powerful and sweet. Her real adornment, she asserts, is the groom and the love she has for him.

Circle”  “around”  While the king was around.  While the king was near me, my perfume spread its fragrance.  In his presence when the king was around she only wanted to please him and she did.

“around”  He is near her, close to her.  Not quite like a seal but the shepherd king is around and she is prepared to please him by her fragrance.  Obviously she wants a closer relationship than that of a king to a servant and a shepherd to a follower.

to please him is a pleasure and delight to herself

She is happy when he is happy for her perfume spread its fragrance to please him.  a couple happily united in a conjugal relation, have a mutual sympathy with each other, a fellow-feeling of each other’s burdens and calamities, and a communion in each other’s prosperity and joy.

His presence fires her sweet flame of love up for him and she pleases him with her perfume!  She aroused him under the apple tree.  She aroused him at a time and place where love happen.  Love happens and she draws him in by her perfume.

Just as he like to browse among fragrant and beautiful lilies for they are delightful to behold and smell so even more so does he like to behold her beauty and smell her fragrance or be delighted with those things she does to please him.  Like putting on perfume for him.

  “My perfume spread”

Before a young woman’s turn came to go in to King Xerxes, she had to complete twelve months of beauty treatments prescribed for the women, six months with oil of myrrh and six with perfumes and cosmetics”  and for attraction Ruth 3:3.  She was out to get him as her own.
While the King was around, at His table, circling communing with me and I with Him, abiding presence where there is fullness of joy,  eating His flesh and drinking His Blood, my perfume spread its fragrance,  (Christlikeness gifted to me spreads it perfume for my King)  Better communion through a stricter union that came by greater knowledge of Doctrine and obedience or greater love and delight in God through Christ dwelling in our hearts increasingly more and more richly.  Think Higher, Greater so that He is valued and treasured greatly.

Her soul changing, Her worship, adoration, love drawing out, flowing out, radiant in all directions of life, heart and longings, desires and affections.  Her incense, how does she smell, When I blow a kiss in my garden what is the fragrance God smells.   When His presence hits you and you feel it better than before or more in abundance, this is the kiss, what do you do with this earnest of your inheritance, will you produce fruit for your Lord or will you take his love gift of assurance as a token to rest in your battle and yes its okay to rest but don’t stop fighting, pride will lerk here if you can’t see it then your probably to high, so remember “Dark am I”  “Come Down from lebanon”

She has the one she loves on her mind,  he just gave her the most amazing praises of her godly character and promises to make her more beautiful.  Her response is, that she only desires to please him,  He is so valuable to her like priceless “myrrh resting close to her heart.” v. 12

Now, add to his value “myrrh” , beauty “henna blossoms”.  Holy worth and value along with moral beauty or excellency.  He is priceless in her eyes and now not only is she most holy and happy in his presence as he adores, praises and sweetly promises good things in the relationship on his part.   “we will” v. 11 is a promise.  The bride is letting us know her thoughts of Solomon as Solomon is praising her! 12-14 is what she is thinking and feeling about the one her heart loves as he is around, close to her praising her noble character.  His love is holy.  As king he is holy.  As a shepherd he is holy.  Holiness is the beauty of her husband, king, shepherd and friend.  Her beloved is holy.   Solomon is a cluster of moral beauties.  Particularly his love was beautiful and so was his unmeasurable holy wisdom.

1:12 “while”  His very presence lights up her fire.  Like her perfume doesn’t spread to any other but the king.  Contrast this verse with 3:1 when he is not in her presence.

The idea.  Why would a woman put on perfume?  What is the purpose of putting on perfume?  What did she do to please and draw out his affection for her?  She put on what made her physically and spiritually attractive.

The focus changes from him voicing his feeling towards her to how she feels about him in the context of him adoring her and what it is about her that pleases him and attracts him to her is going forth or happening.  For perfume is used to please, delight and attract the opposite sex.

Taken metaphorically and in this context her inner and outer character could be likened to perfume for both who she is and what she is like and perfume are what attracts him to her.

Glorying in Christ Contains these.  Only by God’s Love and Grace is she being adored by Solomon.  Solomon is precious and valuable to the bride and he is always close to her heart.

  1. a humble and Joyfull sense of mind of the Great Privilege they have above others in the interest they have in X . those that are so highly favoured and Priviledgeed of. G. G. expects that they should be sensible of it for insensibility of it Argues stupidity & Ingratitude .

“I will rejoice greatly in the Lord, My soul will exult in my God; For He has clothed me with garments of salvation, He has wrapped me with a robe of righteousness, . . . as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.” Isa 61:10



A bundle of myrrh is my wellbeloved unto me; he will lie all night betwixt my breasts” kjv

Doctrine:  “In humility value others more important than yourself.”  Phil. 2:3

He is so precious and valuable to me, he will be on my heart all night.  “he will” is in a future tense in the Hebrew.

He has a special place close to her heart.  He is her treasure in whom there is much value.

Love gives.  She is getting the feeling like he is so precious and valuable that she would give her life to him.  Like someone willing to risk their life and thirst to death during their journey in the dessert trying to harvest precious myrrh.  Willing to give their life to have what they desire!  Willing to deny herself in order to unite her mind, emotions and will with his/His.  Love opened her eyes to his worthiness and enlivened her high esteem of him as God’s Messiah and king.  When he shepherds her heart she is to listen as she did.  She has the feeling that he is precious and highly valued as he expressed his feelings about her to her.

He is the most desirable husband because of his “name”.  He is of greatest value and worth like myrrh because of the superlative excellency of his character over other beloved’s Song 5:10

Take his love away and he has no value.

He is hers and her love’s jealousy was so ferocious that nothing could stop her from having him as close to her heart as possible.  1:13 to 8:6

“the love of the Chh. of to X is a dear love X is most Love altogether lovely in her Eyes she  has an high & adoring Esteem of him & sets him highest among men in her heart”


“And to esteem them very highly in love for their work’s sake. And be at peace among yourselves.”

“It lodgeth”  the myrrh is between her breast and not him.  So he is closer to her heart, and so precious and valuable to her that she would give up her life or give herself to him in order to have him closer to her heart, thus the phrase “between my breasts.

Love highly esteems the beloved.  She is having high thoughts of him/Him while he is praising and admiring her.  She stays humble and doesn’t let the compliment go to her head in pride, but rather keeps her faithful loving doves eyes fixed on his/His excellencies, thus valuing him dearly as she behold his various beauties and excellencies here compared to “myrrh” for value and “henna blossom” for holy beauty.  Her husbands life was that of being arrayed with holiness, the sight of which was beautiful thus making him precious, valuable and derivable to have close to her heart, worth risking her life for and giving up all to possess.

A faithful husband, that is in a Biblical manner untied to  his bride as the shepherd of her heart, has his heart united to her in the most ardent and tender affection.  And she, has her heart united to him, esteeming him very highly in love for his shepherding skills and recieves him with honor and reverence, and willingly subjects herself as the Bride subjects herself to the Son of God.

Love thinks highly of the one we love.

“Myrrh”  Precious and Valuable well Worth dying for, or giving up all you have in order to possess it, and in order to have him/Him close to my heart.  Also,  “I would take a grenade for you” “This infinitely beautiful rose, this spotless and fragrant lily, was once despised with the loathsome spittle of wicked men, and was torn and rent by their rage, and it was for you, O believers, the vials of God’s wrath against your sins were poured out upon it. Here is a sweet bundle of myrrh for you to lie in your bosom forever. He is as the apple tree among the trees of the wood: you may sit down under his shadow with great delight and his fruit will be sweet to your taste.”

The value of any possession is known by the fruit or profit which is obtained by it.

People would risk death and dehydration in order to get myrrh.  Worth, value, preciousness.  The worth and excellency of a soul is to be measured by the object of its love.

“Things are precious in proportion to the importance of them, or according to the degree wherein they concern our welfare.” JE

My Paraphrase

“My lover is the most precious, valuable and desirable that I am willing to give up my life in order to have close to my heart.”

For as the nature of love, especially great love, causes him that loves to value the esteem of the person beloved….

God himself looks on our work as praiseworthy, and therefore will give praise to the saints: “Well done, thou good and faithful servant” Matthew 25:2. See also Philippians 4:8, 1 Peter 1:19–20.

As all moral evil is blameworthy, and worthy of abhorrence and the fruits of abhorrence, so all moral goodness is praiseworthy , worthy of acceptance, approbation, and of the fruits of acceptance and that verbal approbation of the virtuous act is proper and fitting for the wise and morally beautiful.

My lover

The one she loves.  The words help to communicate her feelings namely that it is personal “my”  and that she loves him.

resting in my bosom

Close to my heart.  Love desires to stand in the nearest relation to the being loved.


My lover is to me a cluster of henna blossoms”  Holiness is the beauty of the soul.  Holiness manifests itself in Love to God.  Love to God was in the heart of the wise king,

My”  This is first person speech, told to Solomon sometime after the marriage. 8:  “I will give you my love, both old and new.”   Song 1:12-14 is a part of the old manifestations of her love to him that she felt in her heart at this time but not shared with him til later.

My lover is to me a cluster of henna blossoms

Henna blossoms are lovely, beautiful and delightful to behold, yet a cluster is whole bunch of beauties all in one view.  Similar to how she is “altogether lovely” in one view, yet beautiful in all her various parts as well. 4:7  They both have beautiful individual beauties 4:1-5 (hers), 5:10-16 his, yet both are when viewed altogether is more lovely and altogether lovely and “most beautiful” 1:9  without flaw” 4:7.

Her husband did and would do many beautiful things.

Each beautiful thing he did was like a henna blossom. Add up all the beautiful things about him and you have a cluster of henna blossoms.

The truths about Solomon in 2 Sam. 7:10-15 were all beautiful.

The truths about Solomon in Psalm 72 were all beautiful.

The truths about Solomon in the Song of Songs 1:2-11 were beautiful.

Add up all beautiful truths about Solomon that she knew of up to this point and she compares him to “a cluster of henna blossoms“.

good shepherd, Israel’s Messiah her lover.  This made him beautiful and holy from all angles.  Everything the prophet, priest, king of kings, shepherd, Messiah, husband and friend did manifested the beauty of his heart like seeing clusters of henna blossoms and having much delight in the thought.  The Beauty of the LORD is the light and heat flashing in his heart that manifested itself in all he did.  There was no deformity or defect in all his thoughts, feelings, words and actions towards her.  His holiness made him “absolutely lovely” 5:16 and she see’s the similarity of beauty between a cluster of henna blossoms and the various ways her lover manifested his love to God, his people and herself.

In his/His presence being praised, adored and made promises to she is reminded of how morally excellent he/He is, see’s and tastes the sweet manifestations of his love in the form of praise of the outward actions of her most powerful love to him/Him.  “Henna blossoms”  Beauty.  No flaw in them.  Holy.  Without mixture of evil, like her shepherd king whom her heart loved.  Her greatest delight is in beholding manifestations of his holiness which consisted in his love to her, for God says if you obey Me you will love your wife.  Holiness consists in being without sin.  To see an act of obedience and experience it is delightful.  Holiness is his beauty that she most delights in, therefore she thinks of the best beauty that reflects holiness to compare him to.  He is a holy loving king, he is a holy loving shepherd of her heart, he is a loving friend and companion and he is a holy loving suitor.   He is a cluster of beauty.  He has manifested many ways in which he loves me to me.  Therefore he is a “cluster” of Henna Blossoms.  Each beauty is lovely in and of itself like each henna blossom, but add up all the Henna Blossoms and view them together, this is what she is thinking about him/Him.  And in order for us to understand this we must think as she thought and feel as she felt.  We can feel love.  She felt loved.  Her love she felt was the Love of God through a mediator, the king.  Her king.  Love from God felt by any believer of all time through any mediator will taste something similar.  What she thought and felt in the presence of a great type of Jesus Christ is similar to what we feel in the presence of Jesus Christ.

This is her first comparison of him as a whole.   Her first comparison of him was the effect just knowing him did for her.  Knowing his name was like perfume poured out.  She describes her beloved and friend in 5:10-16.  There are a cluster of beauties ascribed to the one she loves in 5:10-16.  She has now seen them and compares them to a cluster of beauties in creation.  His moral beauty manifested is compared to the natural beauty both seen and delighted in by beholding the beauty of a cluster of henna blossoms.

Her lover is a beautiful with a cluster of beauties.  Not only handsome on the outside but morally beautiful with God dwelling in his heart, for God is love and God is The Beauty whence all the other beauties are but a reflection of.

The sight is so beautiful that her doves eyes filled with love to him can’t look anywhere else but at him.  He is always on her mind and all the praiseworthy things he is doing out of his Love to God, Israel and his bride.

Holy in his prayer for wisdom rather than riches.  Holy in God’s choosing him to rule.  Holy in building the temple exactly as prescribed.  Holy in his work as priest.  As prophet all his sweet words were holy and true there was no mixture of evil in his words.  Remember holiness is his beauty and his holiness consisted in love, the very Flame of the LORD written on his heart.  He was holy as king of kings, the king of peace was a holy king of both Jews and Gentiles, with the government of the nations on his shoulders.  Solomon ruled guided by unmeasurable wisdom under a Theocratic Monarchy.

She says “My beloved”  twice.  Once in verse 13 and now again in verse 14.  The key point here is that for us to know who she is thinking and having feelings about.  When we meditate on this text and we think of the one our heart loves and compare him to the most beautiful cluster of flowers.  These truths emphasize what is true.  Truth is going through the mind.  Facts about the moral excellencies of the one/One you love.  For any reflected moral excellency of God is something of God’s moral excellency no matter where it is manifested.  Something of God is being made manifest to the heart.  God is love.  God is the sum of all good principles.  All moral excellencies in the one she loves are good principles.  All good principles are morally beautiful especially in the one who draws her closer to himself by his love.

My beloved


In proportion as any person is beloved, in that proportion his love is desired and prized.

The best, most beautiful, and most perfect way that we have of expressing a sweet concord of mind to each other, is by music. When I would form in my mind an idea of a society in the highest degree happy, I think of them as expressing their love, their joy, and the inward concord and harmony and spiritual beauty of their souls by sweetly singing to each other.   Here they sing sweet loving words back and forth as they doves eyes meet.

***1:15 with 5:12  Doves eyes.  Peace. Fixed, value, love.  She is at peace and calm looking into his eyes.  She see’s and knows he loves her by the way he looks at her, his look is precious and valuable to her as her look to him is. 4:8-10.

They rejoice and delight in each other’s beauty.

“When a king sits on his throne to judge, he winnows out all evil with his eyes.” Proverbs 20:8

Psalm 141:8-10  David’s eyes were fixed on the Lord  to keep him safe from his enemies.

 How beautiful you are, my darling,
How beautiful you are!
Your eyes are like doves.”

This verse relates to Song 5:12.  Here he is in her presence but in Song 5:12 she is remembering what it is about him that caused him to stand out among ten thousand. It was the way he looked at her when praising her when they first met.  She see’s the way he looks at her is precious and valuable due to love being in them, pure and bathed in milk.  She also is getting the same feelings you would get when looking at streams of water.  Peaceful an no worries.

“Your eyes”  His eyes.  The way he looks at her was precious and valuable

Doves eyes

Rashi  a dove when sacrificed willing submitted by sticking out its neck, referring to the Jews submission to God.  Loves glance of submission 4:8-10

The repetition of the interjection “behold” suggests that the king was smitten by the charms of this maiden. She is very sweet and fair to him. His attention is focused on her eyes: “Your eyes are doves.” The dove is a natural symbol of love. He gazes into those eyes and sees only purity and innocence. To the ancients, the eyes were an index to character.

Smith, J. E. (1996). The wisdom literature and Psalms (So 1:15). Joplin, MO: College Press Pub. Co.

There can be no sweet holy communion unless they share the same nature.  They both have doves eyes.  They both participate in the same Flame, The Love of the LORD.  God is Love.

The shepherd/king is referring back to 1:7 when she says to him “Tell me you whom I love…”  She is speaking to him and she loves him as her new king, shepherd, friend and spiritual brother.  These loves are different then the love she wants but can’t have right now.   She has this holy love for her king, shepherd, friend and spiritual brother right now as of Chapter 1.  She wants to be married to him and also experience erotic love but that she will have to wait for “when love pleases” 2:7.

doves”  Representing innocence.  The dove was a pure sacrifice.

When talking to your spouse do you make regular eye contact?  Are your eyes wondering when talking about important issues?  When you pray would Jesus want your mind wondering on the football game?  There are sensitive, important and special times when our minds should be completely on our spouse because we love them.  Eyes that don’t wander are priceless.  A man eyes that don’t wander will cast out fear in the woman.  Eyes that don’t wander will bring the two closer.  Since their love is unquenchable their eyes will not wander to another lover.


15 How beautiful you are, my darling,
How beautiful you are!
Your eyes are like doves.”

He loves to see that she is the object of her affections. “Your eyes are like doves.”

Eyes of self restraint. Shir.

Beholding beauty transforms, mold and fashions our hearts into its likeness.  The true way to improve, and ennoble our souls is by fixing our love on the divine perfections so that we may have them always before us, and derive and impression of them on ourselves. 2 Cor. 3:18, 4:16

The Bride

There is a back and forth conversation that goes all the way to 2:2.  Union in love is a prerequisite to sweet holy communion or conversation.


16 A “How handsome you are, my beloved,”

16 B “And so pleasant!”

1:16-17  “Our”  Everything is mutual.  The word “our” shows up 3x in two verses.

“Indeed, our couch is luxuriant!”

I say these are mutual because it doesn’t matter who says it the point is there is a union now that didn’t exist 10 verses ago.  This is the first “our” in a love Song about union.  She is together with the one her heart loves!!  They share the same space.  They are near to one another

Mutual sharing of a dwelling place that is green and luxurious for sure.

“our”  the first time the word “our” shows up.  Remember the first time you had feeling for someone and then for the first time you shared something, remember what it felt like, the thoughts going through your mind.  They are now together sharing the same space for the “king was around” in 1:12 and now the comment is that the place where they are together is green or verdant.   Green pastures.

Bonding happens when spending time together.  Whether alone or with other’s, in order for the intimacy to grow time together is very important.

Our bed is green.  Meaning where we lay down to rest is green and luxurious.

Hosea 14:8  “green” From an unused root meaning perhaps to arch; a couch (properly, with a canopy.


“our bed”  our place of comfort, dwelling place, place we meet and fellowship.  How lovely is our dwelling place oh, Lord Almighty.


He has provided a shelter and a covering for her.  She is out of the hot sun and under his love and protection.  His shelter for her is firm and luxurious.   This verse leads her to think of him like a tree that protects in 2:3.

How this verse relates to others in the Song

1:17 relates to 2:3 in that she thinks of him as someone who provides a dwelling place that is strong, firm, solid and luxurious for his headship is like “fine gold” 5:11

Hos. 14:4    I will aheal their apostasy, I will blove them freely, For My anger has cturned away from them. 5  I will be like the adew to Israel; He will blossom like the blily, And he will 1take root like the cedars of cLebanon. 6  His shoots will 1sprout, And his 2beauty will be like the aolive tree And his fragrance like the cedars of bLebanon. 7  Those who alive in his shadow Will 1again raise bgrain, And they will blossom like the vine. His renown will be like the wine of Lebanon.

Isaiah 32:17–18, “And the work of righteousness shall be peace; and the effect of righteousness quietness and assurance forever. And my people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting places.”

Their dwelling place (beams of their house) of their hearts is “firmly rooted

Lord, I love the habitation of Your house And the place where Your glory dwells.
His shoots will sprout, And his beauty will be like the olive tree And his fragrance like the cedars of Lebanon.
Cedars were known to have beautiful branches and abundant shade.  Ez. 31:3
2 Cor. 2:14-15   A type of Christ and the knowledge of his name was pleasing to the woman so also is Jesus Christ to believers.

Psalm 27:4 One thing I have asked from the Lord, that I shall seek: That I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, To behold the beauty of the Lord And to meditate in His temple.

Feeling at home, firm foundation.  The temple.  Substitutionary atonement, worship, answered prayer, where they went for forgiveness, fellowship offerings to God.  Thanks, escape goat etc.  Their hearts dwelling place was the temple.

Their dwelling place is her heart.  Her mind and emotions becoming one through holy communion in marriage.   The support of their dwelling place is firm and valuable like cedars supporting their dwelling place.  And has a priceless covering.

He delights to intercede for her as priest offering incense she delights in his for her.


17 The beams of our houses are cedars,
Our rafters, cypresses.

They share the same dwelling place and they are covered.  She was sun scorched at noon and now she is safe and covered dwelling with him as he tells her sweet things and she “delights to sit in his shade and the fruits of his love to her is sweet to her taste.” 2:3

Its a mutual relationship.  “Our” .  It’s mutual.  They are sharing the same space.  Their couch or resting place 1:8 is shared by both.   They are very close now.  She must be absolutely delighted.  Their houses, meaning their dwelling place.  Their rafters are shared.  The focus is on a mutual sharing of a luxurious long lasting, sure foundational dwelling place.

Their dwelling place had a certain quality. was sure, long lasting like cedars, highest quality for its purpose, what excellency is in the cedar? “the beams of our house are cedars”=Solid, most desirable for their strength and worthiness to be used in building a house for God 1 Kings 6:18 “There was cedar on the house within, carved in the shape of gourds and open flowers; all was cedar, there was no stone seen.”,  Solomon is describing the place in which they are dwelling.   Specifically the cedars are mentioned. they share the same dwelling place., solid foundation and support system.  The most desirable object for its foundation.   The most suitable foundation.  Cedars.    Imagine having a shack of twigs verses a house of cedars.  We get a greater sense of security and joy knowing that the foundation of our dwelling place is sure and solid, the most durable wood. To have cedars as the beams of your house would mean that you were very rich.  Remember she was very poor, she was an enemy slave girl and now she is enjoying the most luxurious dwelling place with the one her heart loves.  They are close, near one another at this point.

cedars” and “firs”  would have served as a lively illustration of the temple that was built with cedars 1 Kings 6:15 and covered with various and

They would have a fragrant smell.  Hosea 14:6

How much does a sense of the sureness of this foundation confirm and heighten the joy of their union!
Conclusions or general thoughts about chapter 1

“our”  The first common sharing of good.  They share the same luxurious dwelling place.

2 Samuel After the king was settled in his palace and the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies around him, he said to Nathan the prophet, “Here I am, living in a house of cedar,

Mutual dwelling place.  They share the same dwelling place, the manifestations of the Love of God.  He is dwelling in her mind and she is dwelling in his and also God dwells in His people by His Spirit.   2 Cor. 6:16  “I will dwell in them, and will walk among them; and I will be their God, and they will be My people.”  John 14:23
Jesus replied, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word. My Father will love him, and we will come to him and make Our home with him.”

Similar to the temple that had a covering of rams skin and fir and badger skin and fir so always their mutual dwelling place was strong, luxurious and sure.

Ephesians 2:12-13  “….You were once far off, but now you are near, through the blood

Is. 1:10, Song 1:8, Rev. 3:12

For more individual detailed lessons on each verse click here.

More Commentary on Chapter one click here